Week 9 Terms

Teamwork and followership]

  1. Top Management Team
  2. Work Team
  3. Cross-Training
  4. Social Loafing
  5. Self-Managing Team
  6. Self-Designing Team
  7. Cross Functional Team
  8. Virtual Team
  9. Project Team
  10. Cohesiveness
  11. Forming
  12. Storming
  13. Norming
  14. Performing
  15. Individualism-Collectivism
  16. Gainsharing
  17. Team Diversity
  18. Pooled Task Interdependence
  19. Sequential Task Interdependence
  20. Reciporical Task Interdependence

Top Management Team

“Differences in TMT composition lead to different strategic choices and ultimately to different performance outcomes. A frequently examined aspect of TMT composition is diversity, usually defined as the degree to which TMT members differ with respect to background characteristics such as functional experience, age, and tenure” (Cannella, A. & Park, J. & Lee, H, 2008).

Cannella, A. & Park, J. & Lee, H. (2008). Top management team functional background diversity and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal. 51(4). Pp 768-784. Retrieved on October 7, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=5&hid=120&sid=a0fcfbd8-f831-49ef-8d8e-7ea89d5f813b%40sessionmgr103

Work Team

“Team leaders influence their organizational environment through their management techniques and their leadership abilities; organizing assignments, tracking progress, and rewarding performance are all under the control of the work team leader” (White & Lean, 2008).

White, D. & Lean, E. (2008). The impact of perceived leader integrity on subordinates in a work team environment. Journal of Business Ethics. 81(4). Pp 765-778. Retrieved on October 7, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=2&hid=107&sid=8af35d87-6f51-44ba-b556-3e671dbd4d4e%40sessionmgr104


"Cross-training within the finance department can also develop more well-rounded staff members. Not only does it help individuals expand their skills, but it has the added benefit of encouraging employees to remain motivated and interested in their work, especially if there are not immediate opportunities for advancement." (McDonald, 2008, p.20)

McDonald, P. (2008). Succession planning as a retention tool. Financial Executive. 24(6), 18-21. Retrieved September 9, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=33176054&site=bsi-live

Social Loafing

"Social loafing is the tendency to exert less effort when working with others than when working alone. Social loafing … latter grows out of rational calculation but can occur without conscious awareness…the primary origins of social loafing are motivational." (Wagner, 1995, p.154)

Wagner, J. A. (1995). Studies of individualism-collectivism: Effects on cooperation in groups. Academy of Management Journal. 38(1), 152- 172. Retrieved September 9, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=9503271834&site=bsi-live

Self-Managing Team

“‘Self-management’ is an attribute of teams meaning that authority over operating tasks has been fully delegated to the team. Self-managing teams do best when the tasks to be addressed are self-contained and organized around products, customers, or services.” (Feifer, Nocella, DeArtola, Rowden, & Morrison, 2003, p. 21)

Feifer, C., Nocella, K., DeArtola, I., Rowden, S., & Morrison, S. (2003). Self-managing teams. Topics in Health Information Management 24(1), 21-28. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9228689&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Self-Designing Team

“The team's design includes the composition of the team, team size, role of the team leader, the decision-making process, and methods for identifying best procedures.” (Yeatts, & Barnes, 1996, under “Team design issues” section, ¶ 1)

Yeatts, D. E. & Barnes, D. (1996). What are the key factors for self-managed team success?, Journal for Quality & Participation 19(3), 68-76. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9607243022&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Cross Functional Team

“The results of the study indicated that functional diversity should be limited… when a cross-functional team is formed, the team should pay more attention to the way in which it is managed, especially when a large number of functional units are involved” (Yeh, Y., & Chou, H., 2005, p. 401).

Yeh, Y., & Chou, H. (2005). Team composition and learning behaviors in cross-functional teams. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 33(4), 391-402. Retrieved October 10, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=17964786&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Virtual Team

“Strategies such as rotating team leadership, empathetic task communication, task goal clarity, role division, time management and frequent interactions with detailed feedback to teammate’s messages prove to be useful in reinforcing trust in virtual teams” (Liu, X., Magiuka, R., & Lee, S., 2008, p. 843).

Liu, X., Magiuka, R., & Lee, S. (2008). The effects of cognitive thinking styles, trust, conflict management on online students’ learning and virtual team performance. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 829-846. Retrieved October 10, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=33902993&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Project Team

“This research seeks to investigate the relationship between knowledge diversity (KD) in software teams and project performance. Previous research has shown that member diversity affects team performance; most of that work, however, has focused on diversity in personal or social attributes, such as gender or social category.” (Liang, 2007, p640)

Liang, Ting-Peng. 2007. Effect of team diversity on software project performance. Industrial Management & Data Systems. Retrieved from October 10, 2008 from www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/02635570710750408


“Many OD practitioners are asked to intervene with groups that exhibit unproductive team dynamics, and are often faced with a decision of how to intervene. In this case study of a senior leadership team at a Fortune 100 company, Deepika Nath describes the application of David Kantor's human structural dynamics model.” (Nath, 2008, p24)

Nath, D. (2008, February). Building Trust and Cohesiveness in a Leadership Team. Reflections, 9(1), 24-36. Retrieved October 10, 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=7&hid=105&sid=91dc99f5-e361-4211-b4b6-66367623ff6d%40sessionmgr107


“At this stage, there also may be a perception that there is only one way to handle the problem or mission. The reality is that some group members may have already made up their minds about what to do, but they are reluctant in this genial stage to be perceived as overbearing.” (Coppola, 2008, p. 72)

Coppola, N. M. (2008) Leveraging team building strategies. Healthcare executive 23(3), 70-73. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=31833574&site=ehost-live&scope=site


“If a team member believes that speaking up is more painful than living with the consequences of a proposed action or decision, and chooses to remain silent, then the team will miss the benefits of storming.” (Patnode, 2003, p. 45)

Patnode, N. H. (2003) Can't get to performing without storming. Program manager 32(2), 42-45. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=9806088&site=ehost-live&scope=site


"The norming/storming cycle is also associated with the inability of individuals within the team to “let go” of the past. Every team will contain key individuals who must buy into what the team is attempting to accomplish, and how it is going about doing so if it is to perform." (Kakabadse, Sheard, pp. 133-134, 2002)

Kakabadse, A.P., Sheard, A.G., From loose groups to effective teams: The nine key factors of the team landscape, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp.133-134, retrieved October 9th, 2008 from




“Collectivists are concerned with the goals of collectives and individuals. Such goals are consistent, so the individual does what the collective expects, asks, or demands, without opposing the will of the collective. Such individuals enjoy doing what is ‘right’ from the perspective of the collective.” (Triandis, 1995, p.11)

Triandis, H. (1995). Individualism & collectivism. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from http://books.google.com/books?id=luUj8miPuIIC&printsec=frontcover#PPA11,M1


“Our analysis of 802 organizations suggests that gain-sharing plans are used to enhance employee participation in organizations that employ market-based control methods. Organizations that use bureaucratic or clan controls are not likely to adopt gainsharing; they are more likely to use participation initiatives that do not involve a group bonus.” (Mangel & Useem, 2000, p. 1)

Mangel, R & Useem, M. (2000). The strategic role of gainsharing. Journal of Labor Research 21(2), 1. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from http://www.springerlink.com/content/eglxrcbr4rvnvlc2/fulltext.pdf?page=1

Team Diversity

Pooled Task Interdependence

Sequential Task Interdependence

“Sequential interdependence is associated with activities ordered in serial fashion where one’s input is another’s output. It occurs, for example among firms in a supply chain, where the actions of one firm can only be performed after successful completion of the action by another.” (Vertical, 2006, p. 2)

(2006) Vertical and horizontal relationships in an industrial cluster: Implications for firms’ access to global markets. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1-6. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=22896792&site=bsi-live

Reciporical Task Interdependence

“For example, if the activities needed to operate a particular set of machines, to maintain and repair them, and to decide how to allocate them to different productions all require reciprocally specific competences, then the activities of production, maintenance, and production planning can be effectively and efficiently conducted by the same worker or by the same group of workers.” (Grandori & Bagdadli, 2000, p. 305)

Grandori, A. & Bagdadli, S. (2000). Part III: Forms of organization: Chapter 10: The organization of work: Structures. Organization and Economic Behaviour, 300-333. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=17444667&site=bsi-live

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