Week 8 Terms

Motivation

  1. Motivation
  2. Power: Referent Power, Expert Power, Legitimate Power, Reward Power, Coercive Power
  3. Extrinsic Rewards Vs. Intrinsic Rewards
  4. Equity Theory, Inputs, Outcomes, And Referents
  5. Equity Theory: Overrewarding And Underrewarding
  6. Equity Theory: Overrewarding And Underrewarding
  7. Distributive Justice And Procedural Justice
  8. Expectancy Theory: Valence And Instrumentality
  9. Reinforcement Theory: Postitive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment And Extinction
  10. Schedules Of Reinforcement: Continuous, Intermittent, Fixed, Variable, Fixed Ration
  11. Goal-Setting Theory: Goal Specificity, Difficulty, Acceptance, And Feedback
  12. Maslow's Heirarchy Of Needs
  13. Alderfer's Erg Theory: Existence Needs, Relatedness Needs, And Growth Needs
  14. Emotional Intelligence
  15. Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory
  16. Mcclelland's Acquired Needs Theory
  17. Carrot And Stick
  18. Empowerment
  19. Christian Perspectives On Motivation
  20. Pay And Motivation

Motivation

“In their study, presenting heavy drinkers with a consumption cue, such as a can of beer, led not only to an increase in the urge to drink alcohol but also to a motivation to work harder on a task in compensation for a non-food related reward.”

Wadhwa, M. & Shiv, B. & Nowlis, S. (2008). A bite to whet the reward appetite: The influence of sampling on reward-seeking behaviors. Journal of Marketing Research. 45(4). Retrieved on October 2, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=13&hid=117&sid=32f945a3-6126-4c73-91f9-e468a8a9e5b8%40sessionmgr102

Power: Referent Power, Expert Power, Legitimate Power, Reward Power, Coercive Power

“Similarly, coercive power is exhibited through customers’ threats to withdraw business unless the manufacturer engages in desired behaviors, such as price concessions or quality improvement”

Zhao, X. & Huo, B. & Flynn, B. & Yeung, J. (2008). The impact of power and relationship commitment on the integration between manufacturers and customers in a supply chain. Journal of Operations Management. 26(3) p 368-388. Retrieved on October 2, 2008 from

http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VB7-4PG11B3-1&_user=5301161&_coverDate=05%2F31%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersi

Extrinsic Rewards Vs. Intrinsic Rewards

“Intrinsic rewards are those that exist in the job itself…includes status, recognition, praise from superiors, personal satisfaction, and feelings of self-esteem….Extrinsic rewards are external to the job…pay, fringe benefits, job security, promotions, private office space. Employees are thought to be motivated to work hard to produce quality results when extrinsic rewards.” (Mahaney & Lederer, 2006, p.43)

Mahaney, R. C., Lederer, A. L. (2008). The effect of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for developers on information systems project success. Project Management Journal. 37(4), 42-54. Retrieved September 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=22287063&site=bsi-live

Equity Theory, Inputs, Outcomes, And Referents

“Equity theory in its most pristine form suggests that an individual will feel dissatisfied if his/her own inputs are greater than the benefits achieved, regardless of the benefit input ratios of other people.” (Au, Ngai, Cheng, 2008, p. 45)

Au, N., Ngai, E. W. T., Cheng, T. C. E. (2008). Extending the understanding of end user information systems satisfaction formation: An equitable needs fulfillment model approach. MIS Quarterly. 32(1), 43-66. Retrieved September 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=29978137&site=bsi-live

Equity Theory: Overrewarding

“When rewards are lower than expected on the basis of the input levels (i.e., underreward) or are higher than expected (i.e., overreward), individuals may deflate or inflate self-evaluations and other evaluations to distort the ratio perceptually and thus to create equity.” (Hegtvedt, 1988, p. 143)

Hegtvedt, K. A. (1988). Social determinants of perception: Power, equity, and status effects in an exchange situation. Social Psychology Quarterly 51(2), 141-153. Retrieved October 1, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=13545278&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Equity Theory: Underrewarding

“When inequity is in the form of an excess of inputs over outputs, underequity or underreward results.” (Abraham, 1999, p. 206)

Abraham, R. (1999). The relationship between differential inequity, job satisfaction, intention to turnover, and self-esteem. Journal of Psychology 133(2), 205-215. Retrieved October 1, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=1773876&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Distributive Justice And Procedural Justice

“Across both samples, and regardless of whether a coworker or supervisor evaluated the behavior, procedural justice was an important contextual predictor of taking charge behavior, while distributive justice was important when considering the evaluation of the supervisor” (Moon, Kamdar, Mayer, & Takeuchi, 2008, p. 91).

Moon, H., Kamdar, D., Mayer, D., & Takeuchi, R. (2008). Me or we? The role of personality and justice as other-centered antecedents to innovative citizenship behaviors within organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93 (1), 84-94. Retrieved October 4, 2008 from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=112&sid=a9b0320d-3001-44a9-ac86-d13a7b337b13%40sessionmgr104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=bth&AN=28718803

Expectancy Theory: Valence And Instrumentality

“Experiment 1 provides reasonably strong evidence for the contention that need state and instrumentality combine to determine the level of potential motivation which, in turn, interacts with instrumental task difficulty to determine the magnitude of goal valence.” (Biner & Hua, 1995, p. 64).

Biner, P, & Hua, D. (1995). Determinants of the magnitude of goal valence: The interactive effects of need, instrumentality, and the difficulty of goal attainment. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 16(1/2) 53-74. Retrieved October 4, 2008 from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=108&sid=f21f391d-96ea-49a9-b37a-75e5610a2ab6%40sessionmgr109&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=a9h&AN=7346302

Reinforcement Theory: Postitive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment And Extinction

“In Experiments 1 and 2, lever pressing by rats was reinforced on a cyclic ratio schedule of food reinforcement, comprising a repeated sequence of fixed-ratio component schedules. Reinforcement magnitude was varied, on occasional sessions in Experiment 1 and across blocks of sessions in Experiment 2, from one to two or three 45-mg food pellets.” (Leslie, 2000, p290)

Leslie, J., Boyle, C., & Shaw, D. (2000, November). Effects of reinforcement magnitude and ratio values on behaviour maintained by a cyclic ratio schedule of reinforcement. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section B, 53(4), 289-308. Retrieved October 4, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=27&hid=114&sid=554e1e40-20dc-40c3-8a11-71ede9d78596%40sessionmgr107

Schedules Of Reinforcement: Continuous, Intermittent, Fixed, Variable, Fixed Ration

“In Experiments 1 and 2, lever pressing by rats was reinforced on a cyclic ratio schedule of food reinforcement, comprising a repeated sequence of fixed-ratio component schedules. Reinforcement magnitude was varied, on occasional sessions in Experiment 1 and across blocks of sessions in Experiment 2, from one to two or three 45-mg food pellets.” (Leslie, 2000, p290)

Leslie, J., Boyle, C., & Shaw, D. (2000, November). Effects of reinforcement magnitude and ratio values on behaviour maintained by a cyclic ratio schedule of reinforcement. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section B, 53(4), 289-308. Retrieved October 4, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=27&hid=114&sid=554e1e40-20dc-40c3-8a11-71ede9d78596%40sessionmgr107

Goal-Setting Theory: Goal Specificity, Difficulty, Acceptance, And Feedback

“Locke and Latham found that consistently higher levels of performance occurred when moderately to highly challenging goals were employed. By contrast, when people were asked to ‘do their best,’ they did not do so because there was no external reference point for comparison.” ( Lycette, B., & Herniman, J., 2008, p. 28)

Lycette, B., & Herniman, J. (2008) Goal-setting theory. Industrial management 50(5), 25-30. Retrieved October 2, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34485116&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Maslow's Heirarchy Of Needs

“…Maslow struggled with the concept of cultural relevance, sometimes stating that the hierarchy was applicable across all cultures while at other times stating that the culture of origin greatly affected the applicability of the model.” (Dye, Mills, & Weatherbee, 2005, p. 1384)

Dye, K., Mills, A. J, & Weatherbee, T. (2005). Maslow: Man interrupted: Reading management theory in context. Management decision 43(10), 1375-1395. Retrieved October 2, 2008, from www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00251740510634921

Alderfer's Erg Theory: Existence Needs, Relatedness Needs, And Growth Needs

"The existence needs are human basic needs, which include the physiological and safety needs; the relatedness needs include man's desire to maintain interpersonal relationships, which are man's social, acceptance, belongingness and status desires; the growth needs represent man's desire for personal development, self-fulfillment and self-actualization." (Song, Wang, Wei, pp.26-27, 2007)

Song, Lianke, Wang, Yonggui, Wei, Jiangru, Revisiting motivation preference within the Chinese context: an empirical study, Chinese Management Studies, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 26-27, 2007, retrieved October 4, 2008 from ://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=6DF662F7A35DC96B418A6B4659B108D6?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkhtml&contentId=1601023&dType=SUB&history=false

Emotional Intelligence

"Sensing when a subordinate needs a more or less challenging task may depend on the ability to monitor emotions, i.e. monitoring when a subordinate is bored or frustrated with a given task." (Burgess, Palmer, Stough, Walls, p.7, 2001)

Burgess, Zena, Palmer, Benjamin, Stough, Con, Walls, Melissa, Emotional intelligence and effective leadership, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 22, Issue 1, p.7, 2001, retrieved October 4, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=6DF662F7A35DC96B418A6B4659B108D6?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkhtml&contentId=1410592&dType=SUB&history=false

Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory

“By verifying whether an analogy to Herzberg’s two-factor theory about workplace motivation can be applied to the web environment, the study was to discriminate those features that ensure basic functionality from those that increase customer satisfaction and motivate their return to a website.” (Zhang, 2000, p. 6026)

Zhang, P. (2000). A two-factor theory for website design. 6, 6026. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://csdl.computer.org/plugins/dl/pdf/proceedings/hicss/2000/0493/06/04936026.pdf?template=1&loginState=1&userData=anonymous-IP1223330543287

Mcclelland's Acquired Needs Theory

“Provides guidelines for managers distilled from key sources. Also looks at the problem of motivating the transfer of training to the workplace. Sometimes it is difficult to motivate employees, first to accept training and then to have them use the training once they have returned to work.” (Monk, 1996, p. 26)

Monk, R. (1996). The motivation of managers for training. Management Development Review. 9(3), 26-32. Retrieved October 6, 2008. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkhtml&contentId=878807

Carrot And Stick

“The study, by London-based management consultancy WCL, reveals that the "too much carrot, not enough stick" approach is predominant, with six out of 10 UK organizations currently failing to manage poor performance.”(Coleman, 2008, p.37)

Coleman, A., (2008). More stick, less carrot. Director 62(2), 37-40. Retrieved September 30, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34418146&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Empowerment

“In 1979, the new idea was for power to be vested in the free market and its policy expression was privatisation… Now the new idea is to vest power in the citizen and the community and to make its policy expression empowerment.”(Millburn, 2008, p.45)

Millburn, A., (2008). Empowerment, the new political theory. New Statesman 137(4914), 42-45. Retrieved September 30, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34375947&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Christian Perspectives On Motivation

Pay And Motivation

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