Week 7 Terms

Leading in a Diverse, Global environment

  1. Diversity
  2. Affirmative Action
  3. Age Discrimination
  4. Sex Discrimination
  5. Glass Ceiling
  6. Racial And Ethnic Discrimination
  7. Disability
  8. Discrimination Disability Discrimination
  9. The Big 5 Personity Model: Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness To Experience
  10. Multinational Corporation
  11. Trade Barriers
  12. Protectionism
  13. Tariff
  14. Nontariff Barriers
  15. Quota
  16. Subsidies
  17. General Agreement On Taiffs And Trade (GATT)
  18. World Trade Organization (WTO)
  19. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  20. Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)
  21. Association Of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  22. Asia-Pacific Economic Corporation (APEC)
  23. Exporting
  24. Licensing
  25. Franchise
  26. Strategic Alliance
  27. Joint Venture
  28. Wholly Owned Affiliates
  29. Global New Ventures
  30. Expatriate


“In other words, the expression and consideration of diverse perspectives can enhance group and organization creativity, decision making, problem solving, and strategy generation, rendering performance advantages relative to groups and organizations composed of relatively homogeneous perspectives.” (Stewart, Crary, & Humberd. 2008).

Stewart, M., & Crary, M. & Humberd, B. (2008). Teaching value in diversity: On the folly of espousing inclusion, while practicing exclusion. Academy of Management Learning & Education. 7(3) p374-386. Retrieved on September 23, 2008 from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=3&hid=112&sid=4889d19b-5ca8-4a70-b116-c7c403fb33b7%40sessionmgr104

Affirmative Action

The discounting principle, as stated by Kelly (1972; Kelly & Michela, 1980), suggests that affirmative action provides onlookers with a plausible and salient explanation for a hiring decision that is independent of the hiree's qualifications for the position, so that his or her qualifications are subsequently discounted as having been an important factor in making the decision.

Heilman, M. (1997). The affirmative action stigma of incompetence: Effects of performance information ambiguity. Journal of the Academy of Management. 40 p 603. Retrieved on September 23, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=20&hid=101&sid=d757f8ec-c675-45fe-b428-da7a95769e2a%40sessionmgr103

Age Discrimination

“ Age discrimination intensifies job insecurity-bad enough in this economic environment-during what should be your peak earning years. Health issues, yours and your parents', can stretch your budget and chip away at your earning power.”

Schurenberg, E. (2008). The risky homestretch of your career. Money 37(10). P12. Retrieved on September 23, 2008 from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=112&sid=4889d19b-5ca8-4a70-b116-c7c403fb33b7%40sessionmgr104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=bth&AN=34284457

Sex Discrimination

“Gender wage discrimination is not driven by productivity differences but is sex-based. Economists define discrimination as willingness to pay, either directly or in the form of a reduced income, to be associated with some people instead of others.” (Shen & Deng, 2008, p. 113)

Shen J. & Deng X. (2008). Gender wage inequality in the transitional Chinese economy: A critical review of post-reform research. Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change. 5(2), 109-127. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32549097&site=bsi-live

Glass Ceiling

“Glass ceiling” [is used] to describe the invisible barrier that prevents women from reaching top management positions. The limited numbers of women CEOs running companies…may be due in part, to “glass walls”…that restrict women to certain fields and positions, are often “dead-end” paths lacking upward mobility.”

Yasin, J. & Helms, M. M. (2007). Population, employment, and marital statustrends: Predicting the number of women in managerial positions. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict. 11(2), 37-51. Retrieved Septemeber 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=29964217&site=bsi-live

Racial And Ethnic Discrimination

“We focus here on Blacks, and not minorities in general, because the Black experience in America has been, and continues to be, especially distinct and because barriers to upward mobility within organizations are especially strong.” (Simons, Liu, Friedman, & Parks, 2007, p. 651)

Simons, T., Liu, L. A., Friedman, R., Parks, J. M. (2007). Racial differences in sensitivity to behavioral integrity: attitudinal consequences, in-group effects, and "trickle down" among black and non-black employees. Journal of Applied Psychology. 92(3), 650-665. Retrieved September 26, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=25143792&site=bsi-live


“Those individuals who have difficulty in learning, remembering, or concentrating (LRC) are defined in the ACS as having a cognitive disability as opposed to a physical disability.” (Gamboa, Holland, Tierney, & Gibson, 2006, p. 328)

Gamboa Jr, A. M., Holland, G. H., Tierney, J. P., & Gibson, D. S. (2006). American community survey: Earnings and employment for persons with traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation 21(4), 327-333. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=24676650&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Discrimination Disability Discrimination

“In the case of disability discrimination, interpersonal mechanisms operate by transforming coworkers’ and supervisors’ beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions of disability into differential behavior that can be observed in routine interactions between workers with disabilities and their coworkers.” (Robert & Harlan, 2006, p. 602)

Robert, P. M. & Harlan, S. L. (2006). Mechanisms of disability discrimination in large bureaucratic organizations: Ascriptive inequalities in the workplace. Sociological Quarterly 47(4), 599-630. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=22674842&site=ehost-live&scope=site

The Big 5 Personity Model: Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness To Experience

“The Five-Factor Model…asserts that normal human personality can be described using five general dimensions: (O) Openness to Experience (imagination, curiosity, and intellectualism), (C) Conscientiousness (impulse control, planning, and organization), (E) Extraversion (sociable and outgoing), (A) Agreeableness (altruism and empathy), and (N) Neuroticism (psychological maladjustment and more experiences of unpleasant emotions).” (Kelly, 2006, p. 300)

Kelly, K. E. (2006). Relationship between the five-factor model of personality and the scale of creative attributes and behavior: A validational study. Individual Differences Research 4(5), 299-305. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=22857616&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Multinational Corporation

“Multinational corporations often operate under intricate economic, social and legal conditions within the territories of their subsidiary firms. Complex business laws and business structures differ from country to country, undermining the applicability of any emergent universal, moral-economic principles” (Amaeshi, Osuji, & Nnodim, 2008, p. 231).

Amaeshi, K., Osuji, O., & Nnodim, P. (2008). Corporate social responsibility in supply chains of global brands: A boundaryless responsibility? Clarifications, exceptions and implications.. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(1), 223-234. Retrieved September 26, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32679723&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Trade Barriers

“Trade barriers contribute to price volatility in the U.S. ethanol market, which can be dampened by opening the borders” (Elobeid & Tokgoz, 2008, p. 928).

Elobeid, A. & Tokgoz, S. (2008). Removing distortions in the U.S. ethanol market: What does it imply for the United States and Brazil? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90(4), 918-932. Retrieved September 26, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34137812&site=ehost-live&scope=site


“In short, the economic and other benefits reaped in previous decades from the increasingly free flows of capital, labor, goods, services and ideas are at risk from rising trends of nationalism, populism and protectionism” (Quirk, 2008, 111).

Quirk, J. (2008). Examining threats to the economic aspects of globalization. International Advances in Economic Research, (14)1, 110-111. Retrieved September 26, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=29373549&site=ehost-live&scope=site


“We analyze the impact of trade liberalization and removal of the federal tax credit in the United States on ethanol markets using a multimarket international ethanol model. We find that U.S. trade barriers have been effective in protecting the ethanol industry. Under current policy, there is separability of the U.S. ethanol market from world markets. With trade liberalization, the ethanol market deepens, making it less susceptible to price volatility.” (Elobeid, 2007, 920)

Elobeid, A., & Tokgoz, S. (2008, November). Removing Distortions in the U.S. Ethanol Market: What Does It Imply for the United States and Brazil? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90(4), 918-932. Retrieved September 24, 2008 from http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/9808/1/sp07el02.pdf

Nontariff Barriers

“Iran is committed to substantial trade and market reform in its Third Five Year Development Plan. It started, however, with nontariff barriers on all products, a dual exchange rate regime with the market rate more than four times the official rate, and domestic energy product subsidies of about 90%.” (Jensen, 2003, 543)

Jensen, J., & Tarr, D. (2003, November). Trade, Exchange Rate, and Energy Pricing Reform in Iran: Potentially Large Efficiency Effects and Gains to the Poor. Review of Development Economics, 7(4), 543. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=5&hid=105&sid=523d0099-6ad5-461b-9ba2-5ca36f1526f7%40sessionmgr109


“studying the implications of noncompliance for the choice between tax and quota regulation. We first develop a general stock-recruitment model of a search fishery with illegal landings and show that compliance uncertainty generates an efficiency advantage for taxes over individual transferable quotas.” (Hansen, 2008, p1130)

Hansen, L., Jensen, F., & Russell, C. (2008, November). The Choice of Regulatory Instrument When There Is Uncertainty About Compliance with Fisheries Regulations. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90(4), 1130-1142. From http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=6&hid=104&sid=317ece25-90f7-423e-93d7-2d7904315efa%40sessionmgr108


“The impact of subsidies is examined in market failure situations-that is, when a difference exists between the actual price and the socially optimal price.” (Kim, 2007, p. 30)

Kim, K. H. (2007). The Impact of subsidies on global markets. Proceeding of the Northeast Business & Economics Association 28-31. Retrieved on September 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=27535381&site=ehost-live&scope=site

General Agreement On Taiffs And Trade (GATT)

“To the extent that the GATT/WTO has encouraged trade in capital-intensive commodities, it appears that developing countries have derived substantial benefits from their membership.” (Engelbrecht, 2007, p. 1579)

Engelbrecht, H. (2007). The GATT/WTO has promoted trade, but only in capital-intensive commodities! Applied Economics 39(12), 1573-1581. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=25727921&site=ehost-live&scope=site

World Trade Organization (WTO)

“In a process of diminishing American nation-state sovereignty, laws passed by Congress can now be abrogated if such laws violate rules established by the WTO treaty… As a result, trade policies conducted under the auspices of megacorporate power are more political than economic and have led to an encroachment and diminution of nation-state sovereignty.” (Brinkman & Brinkman, 2008, p. 430)

Brinkman, R. L., & Brinkman, J. E. (2008). Globalization and the nation-state: Dead or alive. Journal of economic issues 42(2), 425-433. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32534695&site=ehost-live&scope=site

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

"NAFTA mo mentarily boosted the trade be tween the U.S., Can ada, and Mex ico. Prior to NAFTA, from 1987 to 1993, trade between member nations (to tal mer chan dise ex portsand im ports) in creased by an av erage of 12.9 per cent." (Damanpour, p. 55, 2000)

Damanpour, Faramarz, North American free trade agreement with a focus on the U.S. States and Mexico, Managerial Finance, p.55, Vol. 26 retrieved September 27, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/viewPDF.jsp?Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldAbstractOnlyArticle/Pdf/0090260105.pdf

Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)

"International free-trade compacts, such as the recent CAFTA treaty, have advanced globalism by integrating trade-eliminating tariffs and non-tariff barriers – and consequently, economic linkages, and financial flows of capital among member nations have grown in these regions (IMF: www.imf.org)." (Coates, p.2, 2007)

Coates, Breena E., Could CAFTA be the latest conduit for outsourcing pollution?, Internation Journalof Sociology and Social Policy, p. 2, Vol. 27, 2007 retrieved September 27, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=943F8EA8DFDC5ED75E6087D81E9B4A09?contentType=Article&contentId=1595290

Association Of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

"It seems clear that unless member nations put their houses in order, the FDI flows from OECD will continue to bypass ASEAN-10. While it is true that ASEAN-10 currently may be small as an economic entity, its geographical location will continue to be empowered ASEAN as a strategic political entity." (Chen, Tan, Tan, p.5, 2008)

Chen, Kang, Tan, Khee Giap, Tan, Kong Yam, Relative competitiveness of 31 mainland China provinces and states of India and ten economies of Association of South East Asian Nations: Implications for growth and development, Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness, p.5, Vol. 18, 2008, retrieved Semptember 27th, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/3470180106.html

Asia-Pacific Economic Corporation (APEC)

“Enhanced economic co-operation within the Asia-Pacific region via the development of the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation forum (APEC) and the attempts to develop a new political and economic dialogue between East Asia and Europe via the Asia-Europe Meeting (the ASEM process) inaugurated in Bangkok in March 1996…” (Thompson, 1998, p. 336)

Thompson, G. (1998). Economic dynamism in the Asia-Pacific: The growth of integration and competitiveness. Economic Dynamism in the Asia-Pacific. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://books.google.com/books?id=D-lTGl1rMTIC&printsec=frontcover#PPA336,M1


“Exporting has traditionally been an economic activity much sought after by corporate managers throughout the world for a number of reasons: it utilizes idle operating capacity and improves production efficiency; it raises technological, quality and service standards in the organization…” (Leonidou, 2000, p. 1)

Leonidou, L. (2000). Barriers to export management an organizational and internationalization analysis. Journal of International Management. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6VPF-40PXNV9-2-1&_cdi=6205&_user=5301161&_orig=search&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2000&_sk=999939997&view=c&wchp=dGLzVzz-zSkzV&md5=949356afc7016f600df446199c1fde85&ie=/sdarticle.pdf


“This result acquires greater significance in the context of the current North-South debates on intellectual property rights. It suggests that a neglected benefit of stronger intellectual property rights would be the increased efficiency of licensing contracts for transferring know-how.” ( Arora, 1996, p. 234)

Arora, A. (1996). Contracting for tacit knowledge: The provision of technical services in technology licensing contracts. Journal of Development Economics. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6VBV-3VWC62X-2-2&_cdi=5936&_user=5301161&_orig=na&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F1996&_sk=999499997&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzb-zSkWz&md5=57faad7aba7c900fb0b47050a6f32fb7&ie=/sdarticle.pdf


“With a given static market demand and given static cost functions of all potential suppliers as well as sufficient competition, Demsetz' (1968) concept of franchise bidding leads to the selection of the welfare-maximizing supplier.”(Borrman, 2008, p.850)

Borrman, J. (2008). Franchise bidding with differences in demand. Applied Economics Letters 15(11), 849-852. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=34280619&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Strategic Alliance

“In fact, companies worldwide launch more than two thousand strategic alliances every year, and more than half never deliver as promised.”(Steinhilber, 2008, p. 21)

Steinhilber, S. (2008). Stategic alliances: Three ways to make them work. Harvard Business School Press Books 1-160. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=33139037&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Joint Venture

“Forming international joint ventures (IJVs) with multinational corporations (MNCs) from advanced economies has been widely adopted by firms in emerging economies as an organizational approach to building up their innovative capabilities.”(Li & Zhou, 2008)

Li, J., & Zhou, C. (2008). Dual edged tools of trade: How how international joint ventures help and hinder capability building of Chinese firms. Journal of World Business. 43(4), 467-474. Retrieved September 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=34443354&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Wholly Owned Affiliates

“For many companies, local partnership is the key to success in Japan, but the record of wholly-owned affiliates demonstrates that it is possible to grow one’s own Japanese management if one adapts to the Japanese environment.” (Keegan & Masuda, 1974, p. 88)

Keegan, W. & Masuda, S. (1974). Strategies for investment in Japan. Columbia Journal of World Business 9(2), 80-88. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5542925&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Global New Ventures

"More than three out of four customers believed it best represented the promises our new business wants to convey, and suggested an imaginative, global company working in partnership with their businesses." AT&T and BT announced plans to form the joint global venture to meet the communications needs of multinational companies, carriers and Internet service providers.” (AT&T-BT, 1999, p. 32)

AT&T-BT venture named concert. RCR 18(14), 32. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=2419702&site=ehost-live&scope=site


“Upon completing the program, the MISE trainees are encouraged to apply for expatriate jobs outside their native countries, so they will learn to work in different cultures and work environments.” (Leach, 2008, p. 25)

Leach, P. (2008). Getting careers underway. Journal of Commerce, 23-26. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34356078&site=ehost-live&scope=site

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