Week 6 Terms

Leader-Manager Communication

  1. Communication
  2. Perception
  3. Perceptual Filters
  4. Selective Perception
  5. Closure
  6. Attribution Theory
  7. Defensive Bias
  8. Fundamental Attribution Error
  9. Self-Serving Bias
  10. Encoding And Decoding
  11. Feedback To Sender
  12. Noise
  13. Jargon
  14. Formal Communication Channel
  15. Downward Communication
  16. Upward Communication
  17. Horizontal Communication
  18. Informal Communiation Channel ("grapevine")
  19. Nonverbal Communicaiton
  20. Communication Medium


Ongoing communication is the key. You need to keep persuading, keep acknowledging, keep the message coming to make sure the change sticks long enough for the benefits to be recognized generally. The other side of communication counts just as much: asking for feedback and listening attentively to the participants’ concerns and preferences. You need to make sure that your acknowledgements and persuasions are relevant to the needs to the variety and range of the people provided.

Kislik, L. (2008). Surviving changing times. Multichannel Merchant. 4(8) p 50. Retrieved on September 16, 2008 from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=5&hid=12&sid=d8cb8484-f883-4756-bc63-a9f530fe71e0%40sessionmgr104


Several studies highlight how the employee perceptions: meaning, competence, self-determination, sense of control (autonomy) and impact influence on empowerment of people, job satisfaction and stress. Findings of trade benchmarking reports propose that empowering contact centre employees can significantly increase production and efficiency. Studies highlight the positive effect of empowerment on lower sickness, absence and turnover. While low levels of empowerment are related to mental distress and chronic diseases.

Adomaitiene, R. & Slatkeviciene, G. (2008). Employee satisfaction and service quality in contact centres. Economics & Management. P157-158. Retrieved on September 16, 2008 from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=20&hid=109&sid=a773670d-c6ef-4c0f-a402-ba15f6d76cb0%40sessionmgr102

Perceptual Filters

"An emerging result highlights the role of the customer as a ‘perceptual filter’ between the different channels of employees. Research limitations/implications – Customer opportunism is studied via channels employees perceptions. An investigation using a customer survey may help to better understand this construct, e.g. to identify its antecedents, and to measure it precisely. Moreover, further qualitative and/or quantitative studies with larger sample sizes are needed to try and generalize these results. Practical implications – It is recommended not to forget that customers can facilitate or hinder multichannel coordination." (Ple, 2006, p.329)

Ple, L. (2006). Managing multichannel coordination in retail banking: the influence of customer participation. International Journal of Bank Marketing. 24(5). Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=22616626&site=bsi-live

Selective Perception

"The results of these studies have been interpreted as refiecting "selective perception," these studies actually measured this construct in a special, limited sense. Both sets of researchers operationally defined selective perception only in terms of its direction. They assumed that selective perception is manifested in information processing directed at content that matches current functional role or functional experience because familiar content is most meaningful to the perceiver (Lord, 1985). They did not focus on the actual selectivity of the perception—that is, the breadtb or narrowness of subjects' information processing." (Beyer Chattopadhyay, George, Glick, Ogilvie, Pugliese, 1997, p. 717)

Beyer, J. Chattopadhyay P., George E., Glick W. H., OgilvieD., Pugliese D. (1997). The selective perception of managers revisited. Academy of Management Journal. 40(30). 716-737. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=9708122231&site=bsi-live


“Closure techniques certainly do not replace such effective teaching methods as stating clear objectives, allowing for practice, and facilitating group discussion. But they can help stimulate mental processing during important moments of instruction.” (Adams, Zosel, Petrini, 1990, p. 35)

Adams, J. D., Zosel, M. J., & Petrini, C. (1990). How to win closure and influence people. Training & Development Journal 44(1), 31-35. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9086065&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Attribution Theory

“Attribution theory (Weiner 1986, 1995) states that the attributions people make about the cause of an outcome influence emotions, expectancies, and behavior toward the individual affected by the outcome.” (Phelan, 2005, pp. 308-309)

Phelan, J. C. (2005). Geneticization of deviant behavior and consequences for stigma: The case of mental illness. Journal of Health & Social Behavior 46(4), 307-322. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=19346603&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Defensive Bias

“Although they may be adaptive in some respects – helping to maintain self-esteem and well-being (Taylor, 1989) – they may also raise barriers to change and to the resolution of conflict. Affirmations of alternative sources of self-worth, however, can sharply attenuate defensive biases, and encourage attitude and behavior change in potentially threatening or contentious domains. Such self-affirmations, it seems, allow people to evaluate evidence on the basis of its merits rather than its correspondence with their beliefs, desires, and vested interests” (Sherman & Cohen, 2002, p. 122).

Sherman, D. & Cohen, G. (2002). Accepting threatening information: Self–affirmation and the reduction of defensive biases. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(4), 119-123. Retrieved September 19, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=6982024&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Fundamental Attribution Error

“Research has shown that from a relatively early age,people are generally aware of the fact that the actors in fiction programs are not representing themselves, but are portraying a role based on a written script (Lemish, 1997; Morrison, Kelley, &Gardner, 1981). Nonetheless, we argue that people ascribe the traits of the characters in fictional movies or television programs to their actors. That is ,they perform the fundamental error in attributing the characters’ behaviors to the personality of the actors, and not to the external constraints of the script” (Tal-Or & Papirman, 2007, p. 333).

Tal-Or, N. & Papirman, Y. (2007). The fundamental attribution error in attributing fictional figures’ characteristics to the actors. Media Psychology, 9(2), 331-345. Retrieved September 19, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=25075130&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Self-Serving Bias

“A self-serving bias occurs when people subconsciously alter their perceptions about what is fair or right in a manner that serves their own interests. Perceptions of what constitutes “fair performance.” (Charness, 2000, pg 660)

Charness, G., & Haruvy, E. (2000, July). Self-serving biases: evidence from a simulated labour relationship. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(7/8), 655. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from Business Source Complete database.

Encoding And Decoding

“Fuzzy clustering has emerged as a fundamental technique of information granulation. In this study, we introduce and discuss multivariable encoding and decoding mechanisms expressed in the language of fuzzy sets and fuzzy relations.” (Pedrycz, 2008, p830)

Pedrycz, W., & Valente De Oliveira, J. (2008, April). A Development of Fuzzy Encoding and Decoding Through Fuzzy Clustering. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation & Measurement, 57(4), 829-837. Retrieved September 16, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=31420821&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Feedback To Sender

“The process of communication begins when the sender initiates a message. It ends when the receiver perceives the message the way it was intended. But a number of activities can, and often do, complicate the process and distort the message. These distortions can be reduced to an acceptable level through the following:

• Being aware of distortions and working to prevent the message from being altered.

• Using constant feedback between sender and receiver to make sure each is properly understood. This is known as two-way communication. Communication without feedback is one-way.”(Gautschi, 1989, p. 174)

Gautschi, T. F. (1989). Jumping the Hurdle to Good communication. Design News 45(3), 174. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=15931656&site=bsi-live ue&db=bth&AN=15931656&site=bsi-live


"Noise, also an obstacle to communication, falls into two major categories: physical and psychological. The former is created by such things as telephone interference, illegible printing, interruptions, radio and television, and traffic noise. Psychological noise is more subtle. The receiver's mind may wander, the sender or the receiver may be using face-saving devices, the sender may be trying to impress the receiver with his or her power or importance, and the receiver may be so intimidated by the sender that they do not accurately interpret what is communicated." (Gautschi, 1989, p. 174)

Gautschi, T. F. (1989). Jumping the Hurdle to Good communication. Design news 45(3), 174. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=15931656&site=bsi-live ue&db=bth&AN=15931656&site=bsi-live


“Behind the mask of the reign of communication, a nebulous jargon consisting of managerial formulas, which can be construed to mean anything, has developed in the work world. This climate of meaningless favors all sorts of manipulation. Diametrically opposite to the barbarism of totalitarian regimes, a barely detectable form of barbarism is taking root. Preaching autonomy, transparency, or conviviality, this gentle barbarism is in fact succeeding n dehumanizing the work world and destabilizing employees. Using responsibility, motivation, or flexibility as an excuse evaluations are constantly carried out.”

Le Goff, Jean-Pierre, La Barabrie Douce, Editions La Decouverte, p. 1, 1999, retrieved September 18, 2008 from http://www.englishimpact.com.mx/Community_responsability/La%20barabrie%20douce.pdf

Formal Communication Channel

“Females showed significantly higher use of e-mail while there were no significant differences in the usage of the other communication channels. Women were also more satisfied with the quality of the information that they sent and experienced less task variety and information equivocality. Women’s job level and years employed were also significantly lower. Splitting the data by the mean age of 40 resulted in significantly less task analyzability for those over 40 and also significantly more information equivocality, but no significant differences, in channel usage. Also those over 40 were more satisfied with the information that they received.” (Lind, 2001, p.234)

Lind, Mary R., An exploration of communication channel usage by gender, MCB UP Ltd., Work Study, Vol 50, p.234, 2001, retrieve September 20, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0790500603.html

Downward Communication

“The first specification simply includes the four broad types of employee participation schemes as explanatory variables. The second set of equations involves sub-dividing the sample according to whether the establishment operated a downward communication or an upward problem solving scheme. This approach allows the complex interactions between employee involvement schemes and financial participation to be investigated as well as highlighting other interrelationships that involve employee involvement and financial participation.” (McNabb & Whitfield, 2003, p. 178)

McNabb, R., & Whitfield, K. (2003). The impact of financial participation and employee involvement on financial performance. Scottish Journal of Political Economy 45(2), 171-187. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119113920/PDFSTART

Upward Communication

“This suggests that, although information about organizational practices and policies is highlighted, upward communication is rarely conceived of specifically in terms of the transmission of information that is openly critical of declared organizational priorities. It tends to be explored from the perspective of feedback that deals with job performance, or neutral information about organizational performance that can enhance the implementation of a predetermined management agenda.” (Tourish & Robson, 2006, p. 712)

Tourish, D., & Robson, P. (2006). Sensemaking and the distortion of critical upward communication in organizations. Journal of Management Studies 43(4), 711-730. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118727342/PDFSTART

Horizontal Communication

Informal Communiation Channel ("grapevine")

Nonverbal Communicaiton

“Accordingly, the literal meaning of the words accounts for only 7% of how your message will be received, and this licenses endless books and training courses on body language and speaking style.” (Brophy, 2008, p. 57)

Brophy, B. (2008). Seeing them with their clothes on oral communication myths exploded. Accountancy Ireland 40(1), 56-57. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=29727166&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Communication Medium

“Traditional media like newspaper, radio, television and telephone are generally based on centralized production and distribution. The growth of these media has been restricted to a particular area because of their own inherent characteristics. The new media, especially the Internet does not face such problems. It is more of a borderless media which is transformed into a network of networks. It gives a wide range of benefits to its users. It has become an indispensable communication medium for the world population.” (Subhash, 2008, p. 25)

Subhash, J. (2008). Understanding internet usage pattern among students in a northeastern state of India. ICFAI Journal of Marketing Management 7(1), 25-36. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=31198232&site=ehost-live&scope=site

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