Week 3 Terms

Leader-Manager's toolkit for change

  1. Trust (and leadership)
  2. Honesty (and leadership)
  3. Vision (and Leadership); or forward looking
  4. Inspiring (and leadership)
  5. Competence (and leadership)
  6. Modeling values (and leadership)
  7. Shared vision (or common vision)
  8. Credibility (and leadership)
  9. Relationships (and leadership)
  10. Recognition (and leadership)
  11. Leadership and Change
  12. Organizational innovation
  13. Creativity
  14. Kurt Lewin: Unfreezing, Change, Refreezing
  15. Change forces, resistant forces, change intervention
  16. John Kotter: 8 steps (or leading change)
  17. Organizational development
  18. General Electric workout
  19. Change agent
  20. External environments: Stable, dynamic,
  21. Punctuated equilibrium theory
  22. Environmental complexity: Simple environments, complex environments
  23. General environment : Technology, Political/legal trends, economy, socio-cultural trends
  24. Specific environment: Customers, compeditors, suppliers, industry regulations, advocacy groups
  25. Organizational culture
  26. Organizational stories, ceremonies
  27. Organizational Heroes, rites of passage
  28. Visible artifacts and symbols
  29. Strong and weak cultures
  30. Behavioral addition and behavioral substitution

Trust (and leadership)

Honesty (and leadership)

Vision (and Leadership); or forward looking

Inspiring (and leadership)

"Making things happen through leadership also involves: Being results oriented: setting out (via planning) what needs to be achieved, measuring whether it has been achieved and assessing whether the results have led to optimum efficiency and effectiveness. Utilising the art of “getting things done through people.” Leaders must inspire others to want to achieve both the possible and the impossible. Assuming responsibility for the achievement of key goals and objectives, accepting blame for failures and using failure as a learning process." (McLean, 2006, p. 16)

McLean, J. (2008.) Making things happen. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 55, 16. Retrieved August 28, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=5&hid=101&sid=edc64312-276c-4c63-908b-ed4c6f4e5223%40sessionmgr104

Competence (and leadership)

“Competence must include an ability to manage the systemic nature of organizations and of their interactions with other organizations. The requirement of coordination of assets addresses this dimension of competence. In the first instance, competence requires an ability to coordinate an organization's own firm-specific assets—i.e., the assets within the boundaries of the firm and thus under its direct control—in processes of creating value through product creation and realization. In addition, competence involves accessing and coordinating important firm-addressable assets that lie beyond the boundaries of the firm. Providers of key firm-addressable assets include materials and components suppliers, distributors, consultants, financial institutions and customers.” (Shanchez, 2004, p. 519)

Shanchez, R. (2008.) Understanding competence-based management identifying and managing five modes of competence. Journal of Business Research. 57(5), 518-532. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V7S-45XTCX3-6&_user=5301161&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=5301161&md5=de1ae4fcf3b68bf7bc00910d25569f43

Modeling Values (and leadership)

"Each person’s capacity for leadership varies – it may take the form of extensive knowledge of a particular subject, adaptability to a certain situation, open-mindedness, relevant experience, composure in a crisis – anything which differentiates that person from others, and encourages them to take action. Once an individual has performed this ‘Act of Leadership,’ that person is beginning to both look and sound like a leader." (Little, 2008, p.28)

Little, R. (2008) A lesson in leadership. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 61, 28-29. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/detail?vid=3&hid=115&sid=887b6efc-eb92-41c2-8d9a-7e9490b5a2ac%40sessionmgr107&bdata=JnNpdGU9YnNpLWxpdmU%3d#db=bth&AN=30014618

Shared Vision (or common vision)

“Although there is much literature on leadership, it provides only a weak evidence base. Alimo-Metcalfe and Alban-Metcalfe (2000) therefore conducted a large study of how staff in the NHS and local government understand leadership, and this identified three abilities of all good leaders. The first is the ability to show genuine concern for others by taking an interest in staff as individuals, seeing the world through their eyes, valuing their contributions, developing their strengths, coaching and mentoring them, and having positive expectations of what they can achieve. The second is the ability to empower others to lead by trusting staff to take decisions on important matters, delegating tasks effectively and ensuring that staff have opportunities to develop their leadership skills by taking on increased responsibilities. The third is the ability to take risks. Nurses are often described as risk averse even though they manage risks all the time.
As the study shows, leadership is about engaging others as partners in the development and achievement of shared visions. No leader is strong in all three abilities, but all leaders should be strong in one and at least effective in the other two. Leaders should therefore consider assessing themselves against these abilities, using staff feedback, in their appraisals.” (Redfern, 2008, p. 11)

Redfern, L. (2007). The challenge of leadership. Nursing Management – UK. 15(4), 10-11. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=33260679&site=ehost-live

Credibility (and leadership)

“Credible people perform at high levels and drive high performance in others. As a result, people want to work with and for credible people.” (McArdle & Ramerman, 2008, p. 78)

McArdle, S., & Ramerman, J. (2008). Credibility can make or break your career. T & D 62(1), 76-78. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=28095167&site=ehost-live

Relationships (and leadership)

“In choice theory (CT) (Glasser, 1998, 2000), frustration is the discrepancy between what is wanted and that what is perceived to be received. The perceived imbalance motivates people to get what they want (or to leave). Emotional intelligence (El) is about being aware of your own needs and those of others and working with both the best you can. It is about priming positive attitudes and behaviors, and as such, Goleman and colleagues coined the term 'primal leader' for leaders that use El. This is in line with CT where 'lead managers' support their team members in fulfilling their needs by making responsible choices (Glasser, 1994). Goleman and colleagues (2002) define El as being intelligent about emotions, and note "The extent to which one is able to manage oneself and the relationships with others is influenced by El". CT assumes that we need to be internally motivated and that good relationships are the core of mental health and happiness. It also assumes that people have the ability to make responsible choices to obtain what they want.” (Schoo, 2008, p. 40)

Schoo, A., (2008). Leaders and their teams: Learning to improve performance with emotional intelligence and using choice theory. International Journal of Reality Therapy. 27(2), 40-45. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=31818868&site=ehost-live

Recognition (and leadership)

“Recognition programs.—We have many, and the only shortcoming was that senior management often wasn't directly involved enough in telling employees they were doing a great job. The program was there, but the managers weren't conveying its importance to the company adequately” (Swain, 2007, p. 60).

Swain, D. O. (2007) Achieving R&D leadership. Research Technology Management, 50(1), 60-65. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=116&sid=9331bc54-6c17-4753-8486-07207c31fcb9%40sessionmgr109

Leadership and Change

“Change leadership refers to a set of principles, techniques, or activities applied to the human aspects of executing change to influence intrinsic acceptance while reducing resistance. Intrinsic acceptance is individual internalization of a change—a choice to move forward with the future state. Change leadership is guided coordination of the social ecology, focusing on the intrinsic motivation of the individuals (both staff members and leaders) who are subject to the change or defining the change” (Griffith-Cooper & King, 2007, pp. 14-15).

Griffith-Cooper, B. & King, K. The partnership between project management and organizational change: Integrating change management with change leadership. Performance Improvement, 46(1) 14-20. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=7&hid=117&sid=b3ac2808-34be-4c2d-971b-707947cae65e%40sessionmgr104

Organizational innovation

“Organizational characteristics a􏲉ecting organizational innovation, adoption and implementation include the rate of adoption, absorption capacity, employee learning, size, management style and the composition of the senior management team. Tidd et al 􏲓2001) argue that a systematic approach is needed if organizational innovation is to move beyond the Research and Development department to all areas of the organization. Thus, innovation must be seen as dependent on employee involvement, where such involvement is informed by training and development in innovation methods” (Taylor & McAdam, 2004, 32).

Taylor, J., & McAdam, R. (2004). Innovation adoption and implementation in organizations: a review and critique. Journal of General Management, 30(1), 17-38. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=107&sid=3fe4a7fa-ddc4-47b1-bdcc-cf4cdd809b78%40sessionmgr103


Kurt Lewin: Unfreezing, Change, Refreezing

Change forces, resistant forces, change intervention

John Kotter: 8 steps (or leading change)

Organizational development

General Electric workout

Change agent

External environments: Stable, dynamic,

Punctuated equilibrium theory

Environmental complexity: Simple environments, complex environments

General environment : Technology, Political/legal trends, economy, socio-cultural trends

Specific environment: Customers, compeditors, suppliers, industry regulations, advocacy groups

Organizational culture

Organizational stories, ceremonies

Organizational Heroes, rites of passage

Visible Artifacts & Symbols

“Work itself is dramatically evolving and the results of that evolution can be seen in new — sometimes successful and sometimes not as fortunate — office designs. Technology is creating a huge evolution in office design, affecting where, how, when, and what work is done.” (Wallace, 2000, p. 58)

Wallace, M. C. (2000). Complexity of new office designs: thinking through your future workplace. Searcher 8(10), 58. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=3835749&site=ehost-live

Strong & Weak Cultures

“A corporate culture is the combination of the values and characteristics that define an organization. It influences the way employees relate to each other, to customers, to shareholders, and to business partners. It drives behaviors and unites employees around a shared set of values. Companies with strong, formally articulated values that are focused on the needs of their constituencies have an important advantage over those without such values.” (Fairbairn, 2005, p. 79)

Fairbairn, U. (2005). HR as a strategic partner: culture change as an American express case study. Human Resource Management 44(1), 79-84. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=16363108&site=ehost-live

Behavioral Addition & Substitution

“Culture comprises patterns of behavior, that people believe they are working towards and helps provide meaning for their goals for the future. This sets their standards for perception, belief, evaluation and behavior.” (Hooper & Oliphant-Thompson, 1992, pg. 29)

Hooper, R., & Oliphant-Thompson, I. (1992). A change for the better. Management Services 36(6), 29-31. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=12422687&site=ehost-live

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License