Week 13 Terms
  1. Control
  2. Standards
  3. Benchmarking
  4. Feedback Control
  5. Concurrent Control
  6. Feedforward Control
  7. Bureaucratic Control
  8. Clan Control (Or Cultural Control)
  9. Objective Control
  10. Behavior Control (Rules And Procedures)
  11. Output Control (Budgets, Financial Controls)
  12. Normative Control
  13. Concertive Control
  14. Self-Control (Self-Management)
  15. Balanced Scorecard
  16. Cash Flow Analysis
  17. Balance Sheets
  18. Income Statements
  19. Financial Ratios
  20. Budgets
  21. Quality
  22. ISO 9000
  23. ISO 14000
  24. Total Quality Management
  25. Customer Focus
  26. Just-In-Time (JIT) Inventory System
  27. Kanban
  28. Kaizan
  29. Control And Vision Or Mission
  30. Leadership And Control


For example, from a business-model and leadership perspective, we’re seeing a massive shift from management by command and control to management by collaboration and teamwork. You could almost say this shift is as revolutionary as the assembly line. Business processes are being turned upside down to better compete in a global environment.

Fryer, B. & Stewart, T. (2008). Cisco sees the future. Harvard Business Review. 86(11) p72-79. Retrieved on November 4, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=4&hid=104&sid=6e9204ae-53c6-4b52-b0ec-db102b71283d%40sessionmgr102


The results suggested that professions should develop ethical standards to encourage social responsibility, since these actions are associated with enhanced employee ethical attitudes.

Valentine, S. & Fleischman, G. (2008). Professional ethical standards, corporate social responsibility, and the perceived role of ethics and social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics. 82(3) p657-666. Retrieved on November 5, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=15&hid=115&sid=715303f3-c341-4cad-a299-932ab9588303%40sessionmgr104


The more core activities that an HR department performs, the higher the staff ratios. “This points to the need for organizations to adjust their assessments of suitable HR staff ratios for comparative benchmarking purposes to take into account the activity load of their HR department. ”

Unknown. (2008). Set 2009 HR goals consistent with slowing economy. HR Focus. 85(11) p1-15. Retrieved on November 5, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=24&hid=115&sid=715303f3-c341-4cad-a299-932ab9588303%40sessionmgr104

Feedback Control

"Feedback control is the basic mechanism by which systems, whether mechanical, electrical, or biological, maintain their equilibrium. Feedback control may be defined as the use of difference signals, determined by comparing the actual values of system variables to their desired values as a means of controlling a system.” (Schneidewind, 2007, p.413)

Schnedewind, N. (2007). Feedback control system for software. International Journal of Reliability, Quality & Safety Engineering. 14(5), 411-429. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=27441435&site=bsi-live

Concurrent Control

“[An example of concurrent control would be] Nike+iPod Sports Kit uses wireless technology that lets Nike’s Air Zoom Moire sneakers send fitness data to an iPod Nano…As you run, the sensor records distance, time, pace, and calories burned in real time…you can upload workout data from the Nano to Apple’s iTunes and the nikeplus.com Web site to track progress over time and to compete (virtually) with other runners.” (Unknown author, 2006, p.10)

Unknown Author. (2006). Tunes to go. Communications of the ACM. 49(8), 10. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=21638964&site=bsi-live

Feedforward Control

“The limits of traditional control systems are overcome in part in a strategic control system by employing a. feedforward approach that is future-directed and anticipatory. 'In its essence, engineering feedforward control aims at meeting the problem of delay in feedback systems by monitoring inputs and predicting their effects on outcome variable.” (Preble, 1992, p. 393)

Preble, J. F. (1992). Towards a comprehensive system of strategic control. Journal of Management Studies. 29(4), 391-409. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=4555138&site=bsi-live

Bureaucratic Control

“Job classification and job-bidding systems were also elements of the emerging bureaucratic control system (Burawoy 1979, chap. 6), as were the development of formalized layoff procedures, codified rule books, and the introduction (or extension) of job analysis and evaluation.” (Baron, Jennings, & Dobbin, 1988, p. 499)

Baron, J. N., Jennings, P. D., & Dobbin, F. R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in U.S. industry. American Sociological Review 53(4), 497-514. Retrieved November 3, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=14789923&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Clan Control (Or Cultural Control)

“It is suggested that, while many authors of the ICT/QM paradigm promote concepts of ‘empowerment’ and freedom of individual decision-making, these may be seen to rest upon an increasing manipulation of the individual by centralized forms of managerial surveillance and cultural control.” (p. 673)

Wilson, F. (1999). Cultural control within the virtual organization. Sociological Review 47(4), 672-695. Retrieved November 3, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=2826410&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Objective Control

“Behavior control seeks to secure a specified type of behavior in the belief that the behavior delivers the right results. Behavior controls are procedures that lay down a sequence of operations that must be followed. Cost estimation methods exemplify this form of control.” (Liu & Zhu, 2007, p. 92)

Liu, L. & Zhu, K. (2007). Improving cost estimates of construction projects using phased cost factors. Journal of Construction Engineering & Management 133(1), 91-95. Retrieved November 3, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=23461384&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Behavior Control (Rules And Procedures)

“Behaviour control is a consistent predictor of salespeople’s performance and effectiveness of the sales units. This indicates the importance of proactive monitoring, directing and evaluating salespeople by the managers” (Rajagopal, 2008, p. 16).

Rajagopal. (2008). Organisational buying and sales administration in the retail sector. Journal of Retail & Leisure Property, 7(1), 3-20. Retrieved November 7, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=29319634&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Output Control (Budgets, Financial Controls)

“Output control allows salespeople discretion in the means of performance achievement. Hence, when salespeople are well trained, output control would be perceived as an expression of confidence in the salespeople’s ability and competence to perform the sales task without close monitoring of their behavior by the sales manager” (Atuahene-Gima & Li, 2006, p. 347).

Atuahene-Gima, K. & Li, H. (2006). The effects of formal controls on supervisee trust in the manager in new product selling: Evidence from young and inexperienced salespeople in China. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(4), 342-358. Retrieved November 7, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=21194416&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Normative Control

“Normative control does not actualize its form, structure and mechanism in visible manners. It rather resides in taken-for-granted assumptions, which generate legitimacy” (Chikudate, 2002, p. 293).

Chikudate, N. (2002). Collective myopia and disciplinary power behind the scenes of unethical practices: A diagnostic theory on Japanese organization. Journal of Management Studies, 39(3), 289-307. Retrieved November 7, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=6637237&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Concertive Control

“The topic of concertive control, which means shifting the locus of control from the supervisor to the workers. Obviously, these forms of organization and delegation of authority represent major departures from the traditional hierarchical structure and have far reaching consequences for people.” (Montebello, 2001, p525)

Montebello, A. (2001, Summer2001). The Discipline of Teamwork: Participation and Concertive Control. Personnel Psychology, 54(2), 525-528. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=4&hid=103&sid=89c1c8eb-bc4c-4043-b0d1-7e3e89097868%40sessionmgr108

Self-Control (Self-Management)

“Management has the opportunity to promote self-serving accounting practices, such as earnings management, when management can effectively avoid oversight by the audit committee… the ability of audit committee members to recognize management attempts to avoid full disclosure to the board and potentially deceive board members.” (Rose, 2008, p193)

Rose, A., & Rose, J. (2008, December 25). Management Attempts to Avoid Accounting Disclosure Oversight: The Effects of Trust and Knowledge on Corporate Directors’ Governance Ability. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), 193-205. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=6&hid=103&sid=89c1c8eb-bc4c-4043-b0d1-7e3e89097868%40sessionmgr108

Balanced Scorecard

“In this work, we analyze the requirements of modeling collaborative e-Business processes taking into account the specific challenges Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are facing with. A designed analysis framework based on the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept structures the indicators in four different perspectives: financial, working process, innovation/learning and user.” (Hoyer, 2008, p46)

Hoyer, V. (2008, October). Modeling Collaborative e-Business Processes in SME environments. Journal of Information Science & Technology, 5(2), 46-59. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=6&hid=103&sid=89c1c8eb-bc4c-4043-b0d1-7e3e89097868%40sessionmgr108

Cash Flow Analysis

“Cash flow is predictable and manageable. A company’s strategy and market position directly affect it. The recognition of this fact is as calming as it is essential- not only to the manager of a single business unit, but also to a CEO or group vice president.” (Branch & Gale, 1981, p.131)

Branch, B., & Gale, B. T. (1981) Cash flow analysis: more important than ever. Harvard business review 59(4), 131-136. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=3867940&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Balance Sheets

“A frequently-cited argument against LIFO is that the balance sheet valuation of inventory may be unrelated to current conditions. According to this argument, the balance sheet under LIFO is misrepresented by the amount of the LIFO reserve.” (Reeve & Stanga, 1987, p. 10)

Reeve, J. M., & Stanga, K. G. (1987) Balance sheet impact of using LIFO: An empirical study. Accounting horizons 1(3), 9-15. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=4813329&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Income Statements

“…measuring financial instruments at fair value in balance sheets would result in more volatile income statements if gains and losses resulting from changes in their fair values were recognized.” (Beresford & Johnson, 1996, p. 69)

Beresford, D. B., & Johnson, L. T. (1996) Is a second income statement needed? Journal of accountancy 181(4), 69-72. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=9604011501&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Financial Ratios

"Striving for long-term prosperity, companies must base their business decisions on accountable data, for which information obtained from financial analysis is of utmost importance. Published financial reports particularly give ease to companies as well as outsiders in performing a more objective analysis."

Hsieh, Ting-ya, Wang, Morris H. -L., Finding critical financial ratios for Taiwan’s property development firms in recession, Logistics Information Management, Vol. 14, Issue 5/6, p. 401, 2001, retrieved November 6th, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0880140511.html


"The fifth technique – rolling budgets and forecasts – appears to have the most potential as a better regular budgeting approach. A number of organizations have successfully introduced it to improve their forecast accuracy and overcome the traditional budgeting time-lag problem." (Adams, Bourne, Neely, pp.22-23, 2003)

Adams, Chris, Bourne, Mike, Neely, Andy, Better budgeting or beyond budgeting? Measuring Business Excellence, Vol. 7, Issie 3, pp. 22-23, 2003, retrieve November 6th, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/2670070303.html


"It is said that many quality programmes suffer from the threat of stagnation at about 18 to 24 months. TSL is under that threat now and the simple act of making a useful tool out of the Staff Handbook would create a visible reminder that quality is about continual small improvements."(Mennell, p. 17, 1994)

Mennell, Jane, The visible impact of quality, Training for Quality, Vol. 2, Issue 3, p. 17, 1994 retrieved November 8th, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/1050020303.html

ISO 9000

“ISO 9000 is a series of international standards which sets out requirements and recommendations for the design and assessment of management systems. ISO 9000 is grounded on the “conformance to specification” definition of quality. The standards specify how management operations shall be conducted.” (Buttle, 1997, p. 936)

Buttle, F. (1997). ISO 9000: Marketing motivations and benefits. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management. 14(9). Retrieved November 6, 2008), from, http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=/published/emeraldfulltextarticle/pdf/0400140905.pdf

ISO 14000

“This indicates that, although ISO 14000 is an environmental standard, many of the factors driving national certification patterns are not at all environmental in nature, and that ISO 14000 therefore needs to be studied from a broader perspective than from a purely environmental point of view.” (Corbett & Kirsch, 2001, p. 1)

Corbett, C., Kirsch, D. (2001). International diffusion of ISO 14000 certification. Production and Operations Management 10(3). Retrieved November 6, 2008, from, http://www.atypon-link.com/POMS/doi/abs/10.5555/ijop.2001.10.3.327

Total Quality Management

Corbett, C., Kirsch, D. (2001). International diffusion of ISO 14000 certification. Production and Operations Management 10(3). Retrieved November 6, 2008, from, http://www.atypon-link.com/POMS/doi/abs/10.5555/ijop.2001.10.3.327

Powell, T. (1995). Total quality management as competitive advantage: A review and empirical study. Strategic Management Journal 16(1), 15-37. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from, http://www.thomaspowell.co.uk/article_pdfs/TQM_as_CA.pdf

Customer Focus

He mentioned that Microsoft's founder Bill Gates was appreciated by many people due to his commitment to Microsoft's own platform strategy, a fine appreciation of business and technical opportunities, and impressive customer focus.(Finnie, 2008, p.26)

Finnie, S. (2008). Microsoft’s turning point. Computerworld 42(29), 26-26. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=33967880&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Just-In-Time (JIT) Inventory System

By offering market-leading brands from flat panel televisions (TV) and digital-video disc (DVD) players to refrigerators and dishwashers that deliver value and brand appeal, and enabling just-in-time inventory systems, the company allows its dealers to make more profit by achieving higher margins and better inventory turns. (2008, 22)

(2008). Almo distributing. TWICE: This Week in Consumer Electronics 23(1) 22-22. Retreived November 8, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=33933573&site=ehost-live&scope=site


According to company director of marketing Tim Albers, with the lean system, the company can expand the view of the supply chain, Kanban the materials and assemble on demand. (Smith, 2008, 46)

Smith, J.(2008). Emerson expands lean to manufacturing enterprise. Plant Engineering 61(7) 46-46. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=25903759&site=ehost-live&scope=site


“It is "organized" little steps taken to improve production, to improve employee attitude and morale and to implement new technologies — little steps to achieve the often used business objective of today. We have found one of the important keys to continual improvement is cross functional teams — "Kaizan teams," as we call them — challenged to improve our business through application of small group think-tanks thinking "small is big." (Lovrak, 1998, p. 22)

Lovrak, J. (1998). Think small for big gains. Adhesives Age 41(1), 22. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=191172&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Control And Vision Or Mission

“Strive to be a predictable leader. The least stressful companies to work for are those in which the rational system—the officially stated goals, values, policies, procedures, job roles and so forth—is a fairly accurate description of what actually transpires on the average workday. This means that the rational system and the emotional system are reasonably well aligned.” (Miller, 2008, p. 104)

Miller, J. (2008). Leading in the age of anxiety. Power Engineering 112(4), 104. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=31906745&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Leadership And Control

“The ideology of "taking charge", "taking control" and "dictating how it's going to be" in my opinion will not make you a leader. These methods only offer one-way communication, basically the 'bully" approach. They certainly lack the intellect, understanding and finesse required to communicate at the employee, management and/or political level.” (Reidenbach, 2008, p. 4)

Reidenbach, J. (2008). Core qualifications for operational success. Supervision 69(7), 3-6. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32921864&site=ehost-live&scope=site

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