Week 11 Terms
  1. Human Resource Management (HRM)
  2. Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)
  3. Disparate Treatment
  4. Adverse Impact
  5. Four-Fifths (Or 80%) Rule
  6. Sexual Harassment
  7. Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment
  8. Hostile Work Environment
  9. Recruiting
  10. Job Analysis
  11. Job Descritption And/Or Job Specifications
  12. External Recruiting Vs. Internal Recruiting
  13. Selection
  14. Employment References And Background Checks
  15. Assessment Centers
  16. Interviews: Structured And/Or Unstructured
  17. Training
  18. Needs Assessment
  19. Performance Appraisal
  20. Objective Performance Measures
  21. Behavioral Observation Scales (Boss)
  22. 360-Degree Feedback
  23. Compensation
  24. Job Evaluation
  25. Pay: Piece Work, Commission, Salary,
  26. Profit Sharing, Employee Stock Ownership (ESOP), Stock Options
  27. Wrongful Discharge
  28. Downsizing And Early Retirement Incentive Programs (Erips)
  29. Turnover: Functional And Dysfunctional
  30. Phased Retirement

Human Resource Management (HRM)

Almost 50% of entrepreneurs make serious mistakes when hiring, says management consultant Geoff Smart, CEO of ghSMART and co-author of the hiring guide Who. The lethal combination of time pressure and inexperience leads many owners to make mistakes that can be very costly for a new or growing small business.

Reinemann, E. (2008). How to check references. Fortune Small Business. July 3, 2008. Retrieved on October 22, 2008 from http://money.cnn.com/2008/07/03/smallbusiness/hiring_guide.fsb/index2.htm

Q Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)

“A male OB/GYN physician brought a discrimination claim against Beth Israel, alleging that he was discriminated against on the basis of his gender… The court found the male plaintiff failed to meet his burden of proving discrimination and affirmed the strength of the consumer privacy BFOQ.”

Shorter, T. & McLaughlin, C. & O-Day, T. (2007). Can employers use gender in hiring decisions: The discrimination Bona Fide Occupational Qualification applied to health care. Employee Relations Law Journal. 33(2) p55-59. Retrieved on October 22, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=7&hid=120&sid=7efac2d1-fc49-4907-b3db-cfb984edf5a5%40sessionmgr104

Disparate Treatment

Although the Supreme Court declared that the slap-in-the-face standard (qualifications so disparate as to jump off the page and slap you in the face) is imprecise and unhelpful, it did not articulate a more clear-cut standard for the lower courts to follow.

Robinson, R. & Davis, W. & Franklin, G. & Stowell, N. (2007). The demise of the “Slap in the face” test: A profound change in assessing pretext or merely a matter of semantics? Journal of Individual Employment Rights. 12(3) p239-247. Retrieved on October 22, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=3&hid=102&sid=acf9a4f6-7b28-44ea-afc2-d32ac35dd39e%40sessionmgr108

Adverse Impact

“Adverse impact as ‘A substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion, or other employment decision which works to the disadvantage of members of a race, sex, or ethnic group.’ The employer can defend its use …by showing…’valid and consistent with business necessity.'" (Pyburn, Ployhart,& Kravitz, 2008, p.144)

Pyburn, K. M., Ployart, R. E., & Kravitz, D. A. (2008). The diversity-validity dilemma: Overview and legal context. Personal Psychology. 61(1), 143-151. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=28831629&site=bsi-live

Four-Fifths (Or 80%) Rule

"An election rate for any racial, ethnic, or sex group which is less than four-fifths (4/5) (or 80 percent) of the rate for the group with the highest rate will generally be regarded as evidence of adverse impact…" (Greenberg, 1979, p.762)

Greenberg, I. (1979). An analysis of the eeocc ‘four fifths’ rule. Management Science. 25(8), 762-769. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=7364100&site=bsi-live

Sexual Harassment

“Sexual harassment initially viewed it as sexually motivated. U.S. courts have ruled that sexual harassment constitutes sex discrimination…view harassment as the expression of natural sexual urges that are expressed more by men than by women because, proponents argue, men are inherently more sexually aggressive and promiscuous than women” (Berdahl, 2007, p. 642)

Berdahl, J, L. (2007). Harassment based on sex: Protecting social status in the context of gender hierarchy. Academy of Management Review. 32(2), 641-658. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=24351879&site=bsi-live

Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment

“Quid pro quo – literally meaning ‘something for something’ – is an expression describing the legal nature of a contract in which each person receives something for what he or she gives (Walsh 1989). QPQ sexual harassment can be described as ‘the solicitation of sexual compliance through promises of reward or threats of punishment” (Brase & Miller, 2001, p. 242)

Brase, G. L. & Miller, R. L. (2001). Differences in the perception of and reasoning about quid pro quo sexual harassment. Psychology, Evolution & Gender 3(3), 241-264. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=6711920&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Hostile Work Environment

“The working environment becomes intimidating or offensive as a result of sexual looks, behaviors, photographs, comments, jokes, and/or threats. The hostility of the environment must be such that it unduly interferes with the victim-employee’s work performance.” (Gross, 2008, p. 39)

Gross, B. (2008). Sexual harassment: Dressing for a hostile environment. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association 11(3), 38-41. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=34497299&site=ehost-live&scope=site


“In carrying out a recruitment exercise, corporations must offer easy ubiquitous access to enterprise resources and other job information. There should be a flexible means of getting information across to job seekers that have applied for jobs in an enterprise.” (Azeta, Ikhu-Omoregbe, Ayo1, & Atayero, 2008, p. 96)

A. A., Azeta, N. A., Ikhu-Omoregbe, C. K., Ayo1, & A. A., Atayero (2008). A software engineered voice-enabled job recruitment portal system. European Journal of Scientific Research 21(1), 95-103. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=34182489&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Job Analysis

“Because employers, as well as the courts during employment-related litigation, base so many critical decisions on job analysis data, it is essential that the data provide accurate descriptions of the work an incumbent must perform” (Stetz, Beaubien, Keeney, & Lyons, 2008, p. 223).

Stetz, T., Beaubien, J., Keeney, M., & Lyons, B. (2008). Nonrandom response and rater variance in job analysis surveys: A cause for concern? Public Personnel Management, 37(2), 223-241. Retrieved October 24, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32619436&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Job Descritption And/Or Job Specifications

“Establishing good work practices in your business is critical. This starts with ensuring that every employee has a written contract with a job description which is clearly outlined and agreed between you and the employee at the outset” (Rafferty, 2007, p. 748).

Rafferty, M. (2007). Building positive workplace relationships and teams. Irish Veterinary Journal, 60(12), 748-749. Retrieved October 24, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=28060221&site=ehost-live&scope=site

External Recruiting Vs. Internal Recruiting

“While external recruiting is increasingly relied upon, it entails increasing risk. Companies aggressively compete for quality candidates in tight labor markets… Further, external hires often find entry and adaptation difficult, including fitting into the executive team” (Walker, 1998, p. 9).

Walker, J. (1998). Do we need succession planning anymore? Human Resource Planning, 21(3), 9-11. Retrieved October 24, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=1452178&site=ehost-live&scope=site


“The findings reveals that 49% of employees shows interests in getting financial planning and investment advice at their workplace. It claims that with the information, appropriate selection of voluntary benefits to suit an employee's financial needs can be guided by personalized financial advice.” (Gresham, 2008, p52)

Gresham, L. (2008, 2008 Fourth Quarter). Employees Have Hunger for Financial Advice. Benefits Quarterly, 24(4), 52-52. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=105&sid=5eb9367e-7eaf-4ccc-965c-d4dfd33e83a1%40sessionmgr104

Employment References And Background Checks

“Employers have a legal duty to protect their employees, customers, clients and visitors from injury caused by employees that the employer knows or should have known poses a risk to others. When an employer breaches this duty, they may be liable for damages under the tort of negligent hiring. Reference checking performed by employers is essential in satisfying their legal obligations.” (Woska, 2007, p79)

Woska, W. (2007, Spring2007). Legal Issues for HR Professionals: Reference Checking/Background Investigations. Public Personnel Management, 36(1), 79-89. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=10&hid=103&sid=0f211c78-6051-4984-86a6-39c11ff79e58%40sessionmgr102

Assessment Centers

“One hundred and eighty-eight prospective managers completed a Five Factor personality test (NEO-FFI) and an intelligence test (Ravens Progressive Matrices) and then a short quarter-day assessment exercise with five tasks, two more time-pressured and three less time-pressured The IQ test was correlated significantly with Openness and three of the five assessment tasks.” (Furnham, 2008, p181)

Furnham, A., Taylor, J., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2008, September). Personality and Intelligence Correlates of Assessment Center Exercises. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 181-192. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=5&hid=105&sid=5eb9367e-7eaf-4ccc-965c-d4dfd33e83a1%40sessionmgr104

Interviews: Structured And/Or Unstructured

“The structured interview has many advantages over its unstructured counterpart, including its ability to extract specific information that is easy to review, interpret, and integrate, and the extent to which it forces the expert not to diverge from the goals of the knowledge acquisition session.” (Agarwal & Tanniru, 1990, p. 125)

Agarwal, R., & Tanniru, M. R (1990) Knowledge acquisition using structured interviewing: An empirical investigation. Journal of management information systems 7(1), 123-140. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5748144&site=ehost-live&scope=site


“Adults learn more efficiently when they are allowed to talk about the subject, relate it to their own experiences, and discover the usefulness of the skills for themselves. But this type of learning is also very time-consuming. Many companies regularly sacrifice long-term gains for short-term convenience and economy. ” (Hughey & Mussnug, 1997, p.53)

Hughey, A. W., & Mussnug, K. J. (1997) Designing effective employee training programmes. Training for quality 5(2), 52-57. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/09684879710167638

Needs Assessment

“Perhaps due to it's relatively early entry into the field, Allison Rossett's (1987) Purpose-Based Assessment has become one of the most widely used training analysis models currently in use by business and industry.” (Leigh, Watkins, Platt, & Kaufman, 2000, p. 89)

Leigh, D., Watkins, R., Platt, W. A., & Kaufman, R. (2000) Models of needs assessment: Selecting the right one for your organization. Human resource development quarterly 11(1), 87-93. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://www.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=11511490&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Performance Appraisal

"When discussing the uses of performance appraisal, it is important to distinguish between organizational goals, rater goals, and ratee goals." (Wiese, Buckley, p. 240, 1998)

Wiese, Danielle S., Buckley, M. Ronald, The evolution of the performance appraisal process, Journal of Management History, Vol. 4, Issue 3, p. 240, 1998, retrieved October 25th, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=E56F57E71F7DC5D6AE0E4B329F5F5AA4?contentType=Article&contentId=871939

Objective Performance Measures

"A number of possible benefits could result from the ability to collect accurate data on daily work performance. In most instances, objective metrics of changes in work productivity are not feasible to collect." (Pransky, Finkelstein, Berndt, Kyle, Mackell, Torturice, p. 398, 2006)

Pransky, Glenn, Finkelstein, Stan, Berndt, Ernst, Kyle, Margaret, Mackell, Joan, Torturice, Dan, Objective and self-report work performance measures: a comparative analysis International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 55, Issue 5, p. 398, 2006, retrieved October 25th, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=E56F57E71F7DC5D6AE0E4B329F5F5AA4?contentType=Article&contentId=1558966

Behavioral Observation Scales (Boss)

"The crucial interactive dimensions of assertiveness and responsiveness form the two axes of the behavioral style model. Each quadrant of this model represents one of the four behavioral styles – relater, analyzer, director or socializer. (Darling, Walker, p. 231, 2001)

Darling, John R., Walker, W. Earl, Effective conflict management: use of the behavioral style model, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 22, Issue 5, p. 231, 2001, retrieved October 25th, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0220220504.html

360-Degree Feedback

“Commonly called 360-degree feedback, these systems may include feedback from peers. Subordinates, self, supervisors, higher level managers, or customers, and often contain feedback from many of these sources. As evidence of the increasing popularity of 360-degree feedback systems, the number of off-the-shelf 360 instruments being sold has nearly quadrupled in the past decade.” (Facteau, 1998, p. 428)

Facteau, C. (1998). Reactions of leaders to 360-degree feedback from subordinates and peers. The Leadership Quarterly 9(4), 427-448. Retrieved October 23, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6W5N-45FY469-21-1&_cdi=6575&_user=5301161&_orig=search&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F1998&_sk=999909995&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzW-zSkWb&md5=6537e5cf44626b9e79cb0dc847eb03a7&ie=/sdarticle.pdf


“The notion that compensation policies are strategic, thereby affecting the missions of the organization, has considerable currency. This is part of the current popularity of all things strategic.” (Milkovich, 1987, p. 2)

Milkovich, G. (1987). A strategic perspective on compensation management. A Strategic Perspective on Compensation Management 87(1), p. 1-48. Retrieved October 23, 2008, from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1443&context=cahrswp

Job Evaluation

“Job evaluation is the process of assessing in an organization the value of one job in relation to another, without regard to the ability of personality of the individuals currently holding the position. It results in a pay range for each hob, and individual’s personal worth is recognized by awarding increments within the fixed range for the job.” (Dransfield, 2000, p. 78)

Dransfield, R. (2000). Human Resources Management. Retrieved October 23, 2008, from http://books.google.com/books?id=Eq3Tcd9gYn8C&printsec=frontcover#PPA78,M1

Pay: Piece Work, Commission, Salary,

pay: piece work, commission, salary-employers claims that 91% of employees can expect salary increase, which suggests that despite troubled economic times, employers value talented worker and want to retain them.(WorldatWork, 2008, p.51)

Worldatwork (2008). Compensation:Salary budgets projected to rise 3.9% in 2009. Benefits Quarterly 24(4), 51. Retrieved October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=34548081&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Profit Sharing, Employee Stock Ownership (ESOP), Stock Options

profit sharing, employee stock ownership (ESOP), stock options- The data is collected from Finnish personnel funds, which are deferred profit-sharing schemes. Survey data from over 753 employees in 30 companies in different sectors were used. In studying the antecedents of profit-sharing knowledge, we found strong evidence that better profit-sharing communication and higher membership length increase profit-sharing knowledge.(Sweins, Kalmi, 2008, p.366)

Sweins, C., Kalmi. P.,(2008). Pay knowledge, pay satisfaction and employee commitment: evidence from finnish profit-sharing schemes. Human Resource Management Journal 18(4), 366-385 Retreived October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=34805388&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Wrongful Discharge

wrongful discharge- Hudgens claimed that during a motivational exercise, team members held him with his head facing downhill while his supervisor slowly poured a gallon of water over his mouth and nostrils. The exercise is waterboarding, a controversial coercive interrogation technique which some people and governments consider torture, the lawsuit states. The suit also seeks damages alleges battery, inflicting emotional distress and wrongful termination.(Business Insurance, 2008, p.60)

(2008). Worker says bonding exercise was torture. Business Insurance 42(29), 60 Retreived October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=33924192&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Downsizing And Early Retirement Incentive Programs (Erips)

“To the extent possible, an ERIP should limit eligibility to those positions that are actually excess. Paying an enhanced retirement benefit, coupled with the expenses of replacing an employee, which may also perhaps include employment agency fees, is clearly an odd way to cut costs. Obviously age discrimination laws place some limits on this approach.” (Stein, 1991, pg. 674)

Stein, L. (1991). Thought the looking glass: An analysis of window plans. Labor Law Journal 42(10), 665-676. Retrieved October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5877220&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Turnover: Functional And Dysfunctional

“Thus, when “good” performers leave an organization, their replacement is likely to be of lower caliber (dysfunctional turnover), while the “poor” performing employee is apt to be replaced by an individual of higher quality (functional turnover).” (Johnson, Griffeth, & Griffin, 2000, pg. 400)

Johnson, J., Griffeth, R. & Griffin, M. (2000). Factors discriminating functional and dysfunctional salesforce turnover. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 15(6/7), 399-415. Retrieved October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=3869122&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Phased Retirement

“To help achieve balance, the report suggests identifying needs, managing flexibility ef-fectively, offering phased retirement, and tailoring benefits to appeal to older workers (adding more vacation time and one-month paid sabbaticals for veterans).” (2008, pg. 2)

Achieving work-life balance called crucial to younger generation. (2008). Work-Life Newsbrief & Trend Report, 2. Retrieved October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34433197&site=ehost-live&scope=site

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