Week 10 Terms

Leadership Theory

  1. Leadership
  2. Trait Theory
  3. Skills Approach: Technical, Human Skills, Conceptual
  4. Ohio State Studies: Initiating Structure Vs. (Or) Consideration
  5. University Of Michigan Studies: Employee Orientation And Production Orientation
  6. Blake And Mouton's Leadership (Or Managerial) Grid
  7. Situational Leadership
  8. Contingency Theory - Situational Favorableness, Leader-Member Relations, Task Structure, Position Power
  9. Path-Goal Theory
  10. Directive Leadership, Supportive Leadership, Participative Leadership, Achievement Oriented Leadership
  11. Leader-Member Exchange
  12. In Group, Out Group Didactic Relationship
  13. Leadership Making
  14. Transformational Leadership
  15. Transactional Leadership
  16. Charismatic Leadership
  17. Normative Decision Theory
  18. Strategic Leadership
  19. Visionary Leadership
  20. Servant Leadership


"Leadership is about making emotional connections to motivate and inspire people, and our effectiveness at doing this has strong cultural overtones."

Hemp, P. (2008). Where will we find tomorrow’s leaders? Harvard Business Review. 86(1) p123-129. Retrieved on October 14, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=24&hid=101&sid=176d5b0b-6d02-459f-b006-d86019003d38%40sessionmgr109

Trait Theory

"The trait theory of leadership is advanced by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) leadership self-efficacy in linking neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness and (b) the moderating role of job demands and job autonomy in influencing the mediation."

Ng, K. & Ang, S. & Chan, K. (2008). Personality and leader effectiveness: A moderated mediation model of leadership self-efficacy, job demands, and job autonomy. Journal of Applied Psychology 93(4). P733-743. Retrieved on October 14, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=6&hid=106&sid=c105d33c-02c5-4ccc-b87e-f5866ff3665f%40sessionmgr109

Skills Approach: Technical, Human Skills, Conceptual

“Technical Skills: understanding of and proficiency in a specific kind of activity … involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability. Human skills: Ability to work effectively as a group and to build cooperative effort. Conceptual Skills: Ability to see the enterprise as a whole…extends to visualizing the relationship of the individual business to the industry, the community, and the political, social, and economic forces of the nation as a whole.” (Dubinsky & Ingram, 1984, p.45)

Dubinsky, A. J. & Ingram, T. N. (1984). From selling to sales management: A developmental model. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 1(3), 43-52. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=8908198&site=bsi-live.

Ohio State Studies: Initiating Structure Vs. (Or) Consideration

“Consideration is the degree to which a leader shows concern and respect for followers. Initiating structure is the degree to which a leader defines and organizes his role and roles of followers, is oriented toward goal attainment and establishes well defined patterns and channels of communication. Consideration and initiating structure…[are] the most robust of leadership concepts.” (Judge, Piccolo, & Ilies, 2004, p.36)

Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., &Ilies, R. (2004). The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research. Journal of Applied Psychology. 89(1), 36-51. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=12478359&site=bsi-live.

University Of Michigan Studies: Employee Orientation And Production Orientation

“The Michigan researchers identified two orientations of supervision, production centered and employee centered…[and] came to the conclusion that effective leadership is dependent on an interaction between employee orientation (consideration) and production orientation (initiating structure)” (Sellgren, Ekvall, & Tomson, 2006, p. 349)

Sellgren, S., Ekvall, G., & Tomson, G. (2006). Leadership styles in nursing management: Preferred and perceived. Journal of Nursing Management 14(5), 348-355. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=21170754&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Blake And Mouton's Leadership (Or Managerial) Grid

“Blake and Mouton (1964) have extended the work of Likert into a conceptual model of managerial behavior called the Managerial Grid. Two concerns of major importance to the individual manager have been identified by them as (1) a concern for production, and (2) a concern for people.” (Viano, 1973, p. 91)

Viano, E. (1973). The styles of management inventory: A methodological analysis of a training and research instrument. Quality & Quantity 7(1), 91-106. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9957949&site=ehost-live&scope=site

p Situational Leadership

“Although [Situational Leadership Theory] is a well-known and oft-taught approach to leadership education in both managerial and military contexts, the results of empirical tests of thetheory’s principles, judged in their totality, indicate that the theory cannot be endorsed without reservation or substantial modification” (Vecchio, Bullis, & Brazil, 2006, p. 422).

Vecchio, R., Bullis, R., & Brazil, D. (2006). The utility of situational leadership theory: A replication in a military setting. Small Group Research, 37(5), 407-424. Retrieved October 13, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=27983743&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Contingency Theory - Situational Favorableness, Leader-Member Relations, Task Structure, Position Power

“The contingency theory of management accounting is based on the premise that there is no universally appropriate accounting system applicable to all organizations in all circumstances (Emmanuel et al, 1990:57). Rather the contingency theory attempts to identify specific aspects of an accounting system that are associated with certain defined circumstances and to demonstrate an appropriate matching.” (Waweru, 2008, p. 26).

Waweru, N. (2008). Predicting change in management accounting systems: The effects of competitive strategy. Global Journal of Business Research, 2(1), 25-41. Retrieved October 16, 2008 from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32639794&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Path-Goal Theory

“In a test of hypotheses derived from the integration of principles of path-goal theory, data collected from 179 high school teachers and their principals were examined with hierarchical regression analysis. Augmentation analysis indicated that transactional leadership had a stronger role in explaining unique criterion variance beyond the contribution of transformational leadership.” (Vecchio, 2008, p72)

Vecchio, R., Justin, J., & Pearce, C. (2008, March). The utility of transactional and transformational leadership for predicting performance and satisfaction within a path-goal theory framework. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 81(1), 71-82. Retrieved October 17, 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=4&hid=102&sid=f9064385-5252-4f35-aeb6-8451c7db0642%40sessionmgr102

Directive Leadership, Supportive Leadership, Participative Leadership, Achievement Oriented Leadership

“There was no direct relationship between these cultural dimensions and GOCB. Directive leadership had a negative relation, and supportive leadership a positive relation with GOCB. Culture moderated this relationship: Directive leadership was more negatively, and supportive behavior less positively, related to GOCB in individualistic compared to collectivistic societies” (Euwema, 2007, p1035)

Euwema, M., Wendt, H., & van Emmerik, H. (2007, November). Leadership styles and group organizational citizenship behavior across cultures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(8), 1035-1057. From http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=6&hid=104&sid=317ece25-90f7-423e-93d7-2d7904315efa%40sessionmgr108

Leader-Member Exchange

“Employees who experience strong LMX may benefit from more supervisory attention (i.e. receive more training, guidance), especially during early employment periods, thereby improving their skill sets and enhancing their marketability. Such improvements in job skills may, in turn, make the employee more attractive to other employers and ultimately lead to greater turnover.” (Morrow, Suzuki, Crum, Ruben, & Pautsch, 2005, p. 682)

Morrow, P. C., Suzuki, Y., Crum, M. R., Ruben R., & Pautsch, G. (2005) The role of leader-member exchange in high turnover work environments. Journal of managerial psychology 20(8), 681-694. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/02683940510631444

In Group, Out Group Didactic Relationship

“In-group (high LMX) members typically are high performers and receive positive supervisor evaluations while out-group (low LMX) members typically perform below expectations and receive negative supervisor evaluations. High LMX members will assist the leader in maintaining team ‘harmony’ and perform in numerous ways that exceed the boundaries of the employment contract.” (Henry, 1994, p. 25)

Henry, J. W. (1994) The service employee's pivotal role in organizational success. Journal of services marketing 8(4), 25-35. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/08876049410070709

Leadership Making

"By the nature of their position, team leaders are essentially being groomed for advancement within the company. Therefore, to function in the best interests of both the individual and the organization, their training should not be viewed as a discrete phenomenon but incorporated into management development programs." (MCB LTD., pp. 5-6, 2003)

MCB UP Ltd, Making teamwork work: The importance of training and development for team leaders, Human Resource Management International Digest, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pp.5-6, 2003, retrieved October 16, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=0A502773317149EB6F9C7E3C053683E9?contentType=Article&contentId=1411778

Transformational Leadership

"The foundation of transformational leadership rests on what Bass and Avolio (1994) refer to as the four I's of transformational leadership, which comprise three factors (Avolio and Yammarino, 2002; Avolio et al., 1999; Bass, 1988; Bycio et al., 1995): idealized influence/inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration." (Dionne, Yammarino, Atwater, Spangler, p. 179, 2004)

Dionne, Shelley D., Yammarino, Francis J., Atwater, Leanne E., Spangler, William D., Transformational leadership and team performance, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 17, Issue 2, p. 179, 2004, retrieved October 16, 2008 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0230170204.html

Transactional Leadership

“Bums considered the transformational leader to be distinct from the transactional leader, where the latter is viewed as a leader who initiates contact with subordinates in an effort to exchange something of value, such as rewards for performance, mutual support, or bilateral disclosure.”(Lowe, Kroeck & Sivasubramaniam, 1996, p. 386)

Lowe, K., Kroeck, K., Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the mlq literature. The Leadership Quarterly 7(3), 385-425. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6W5N-45FYF5W-M-1&_cdi=6575&_user=5301161&_orig=search&_coverDate=07%2F01%2F1996&_sk=999929996&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzz-zSkWA&md5=94162528ad6f98b1a15032e618dd81d1&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

Charismatic Leadership

“Unlike the ‘traditional’ leadership theories, which emphasized rational processes, theories of transformational and charismatic leadership emphasize emotions and values. The newer theories also acknowledge the importance of symbolic behavior and the role of the leader in making events meaningful for followers.”(Yukl, 1999, pg. 285-286)

Yukl, G. ( 1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. The Leadership Quarterly 10(2), 285-305. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6W5N-3XX6KDP-7-1&_cdi=6575&_user=5301161&_orig=search&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F1999&_sk=999899997&view=c&wchp=dGLbVtb-zSkzk&md5=7ccc301fc7c19781ef6a07dd684f5654&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

Normative Decision Theory

Strategic Leadership

Visionary Leadership

Servant Leadership

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