Philosophy of Management

Management is the process of completing work through other people. A very important aspect of a manger is that they strive to get the work done with efficiency and effectiveness.

Managers create an environment for employees to work efficiently, as well as establish norms and keep employees motivated.

There are four important stages of management: Forming, storming, norming, and performing. These four stages are key to forming an efficient and effective group.

There are five functions of managers: planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling. These are tools that keep the organization running smoothly according to its purpose and plans.

Being a manager involves three major skills: conceptual skills, human skills, and technical skills.

In order to motivate and create a stimulating environment for employees, there must be a clear vision and mission statement. Both of these should be clearly understood by every employee through constant exposure and communication. The vision and mission statement must also be broken down into practical goals called S.M.A.R.T. goals.

It takes leadership, ethics, and experience. It takes people skills, as well as developing and maintaining the lines of communication between managers and employees. By keeping communication lines open, managers can work on and maintain employee satisfaction.

Management must be aware of discrimination issues that may occur and initiate innovative ways to prevent discrimination in the workplace. At the same time, however, it is important that there be diversity within the company.

The Bible has a criterion for management and those in management positions as well. Man is to be faithful in what they have been purposed by God to do (Ephesians 2:10). God has anointed each of us to be his hands in the workplace (Luke 4:18).
Everything we say or do should be to the glory of God, as all our work will be judged accordingly (I Corinthians 3:13).

Annotated Bibliography


"Great managers need to be able to think outside the box, to look at the world around them, to think globally—not just how the business has always been done."

Kibort, P (2004). Management vs. leadership. Physician Executive 30, Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


“What makes employees effective certainly relates to their talents and interests. In the workplace, matching employee abilities to organizational needs is the easy part.
Once you have service providers in the best position to assist your members, the real question is: "What keeps them engaged?"”

Schmidt, R. (2007). The benefits of an engaged employee. Credit Union Journal. 11(44) p10. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from

“The results of this study reveal that team performance largely depends on the effectiveness of team coordination, leadership and performance control through behavioral attributes. Sales managers may implement such controls effectively by establishing coordination, training, and feedback process rather than imposing command and control policy.”

Rajagopal, R., & Rajagopal, A. (2008, March 7). Team performance and control process in sales organizations. Team Performance Management, 14(1/2), 70-85. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from

“Managers [are] trying to make sense of their organizations in order to learn how to act more effectively. This includes an interest in learning, not just of individuals, but of groups, teams and whole organizations acting and learning together.”

Pedler, M. (1999, September). Making organizational processes visible for the purposes of learning. Human Resource Development International, 2(3), 273. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Business Source Complete database.


“My job is to create an environment where people who do make [parts] can make them right, can make them right the first time, can make them at a competitive cost, and can do so with some sense of responsibility and pride in what they’re doing,” says Pat Carrigan of her job as a manager at General Motors.”

Williams, C. (2008). MGMT. (Pg 3). South-Western Cengage Learning. Ohio.


“We highlight four aspects of norms. The first three are properties of a norm to which an individual subscribes: {I) polarity, that is, whether a norm is prescriptive, proscriptive, or bipolar; (2) conditionality, that is, whether a norm holds under all circumstances; and (3) intensity, the degree to which the individual subscribes to a norm. (4) The fourth aspect is consensus, the extent to which members of a society share a norm.”

Guillermina, J. (1997). Probing the character of norms: A factorial survey analysis of norms of political action. American Sociological Review 62(6), pp 947-964. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


“Our research also revealed that organizations don’t have an absolute monopoly on employee motivation or on fulfilling people’s emotional drives. Employees’ perceptions of their immediate managers matter just as much. People recognize that a multitude of organizational factors, some outside their supervisor’s control, influence their motivation, but they are discriminating when it comes to evaluating that supervisor’s ability to keep them motivated.”

Nohria, N. & Groysberg, B. (2008). Employee motivation. Harvard Business Review. 86(7/8) p78-84. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from


“Forming or selecting the people who will be on a team. During forming everybody is usually very polite and quiet. Group members will want to know what they will be asked to contribute and what the group will offer them. Conflict is seldom voiced and is usually suppressed. Since the grouping is new, most people are guarded and reserved in their comments and opinions and may defer to those who appear to be leaders.”

Scott, J. (2005). Managing teams and work groups. Concise Handbook of Management: A Practitioner’s Approach. P79-84. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from


“Storming is characterized by personality clashes, faction forming, fights for domination, and much talk with little listening. During storming the group splits into separate factions and battle lines are drawn. Most important to note is that very little communication occurs at this stage. In most businesses, this battlefield scenario rarely erupts into a readily observed situation. Instead, emotion and conflict seethe beneath a veil of civility and are transformed into sarcasm and innuendo. Failure to pass through this stage without intense conflict resolution may result in lasting liabilities.”

Scott, J. (2005). Managing teams and work groups. Concise Handbook of Management: A Practitioner’s Approach. P79-84. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from


“Norming begins when a team settles down and begins to work toward its goal. During norming the group finally recognizes that it must work together, or perhaps it's told that it must—or else. In-fighting subsides. Bickering, fighting over turf, playing politics, and, in effect, canceling each other out, reduces. Norms (acceptable standards of behavior) begin to be established. Most important, people start to listen to each other. “

Scott, J. (2005). Managing teams and work groups. Concise Handbook of Management: A Practitioner’s Approach. P79-84. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from


“Performing develops when the group begins to work within a system that allows it to get the job done, and when everyone's input culminates into a single, shared outcome. During performing individuals feel free to express their views and support one another. In doing so, a clear and stable structure develops. More to the point, this is the stage during which the elevated performance of each individual emerges.”

Scott, J. (2005). Managing teams and work groups. Concise Handbook of Management: A Practitioner’s Approach. P79-84. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from


“A business must have a basic direction for major actions and a well-prepared business plan will have that direction incorporated within it.”

Ashamalla, M (2008) Business plans: Are they relevant to venture capitalists? Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship 21(4), pp381-391 Retrieved November 10, 2008 from

“Planning is very positively related to profitability when an informant source of performance data is used, planning is measured without reference to written documentation, the quality of an assessment strategy is high, and the environments faced by the firms in a sample are turbulent."

Miller, C., & Cardinal, L. (1994, December). Strategic planning and firm performance: a synthesis of more than two decades of research. Academy of Management Journal, 37(6), pp. 1649-1665. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


“The basic building block of organizing is the one-on-one encounter between an organizer and a worker. This intimate engagement, in which an organizer helps a worker analyze her work life and then encourages and motivates her to take specific steps to unite with fellow co-workers, has not changed. These encounters, stacked up one after the other, constitute the skeleton of an organizing drive.”

Luebke, S., Luff, J. (2003). Contempory affairs organizing: A secret history. Labor history, 44, p. 421. Retrieved November 5, 2008, from


“Having a possibility to control ones work seems to imply more favorable fairness evaluations, which, in turn, mediate the influence on work and family interactions.”

Heponiemi, T., et. al. (2008). The effects of job demands and low job control on work-family conflict. Journal of Community Psychology, 36. Retrieved November 8, 2008 from


“A conceptual model is proposed, consisting of service initiatives of the service profit chain, industry best practice, relationship marketing and service quality. Our overall aim is to introduce such initiatives to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty, thereby enhancing growth of these small businesses.”

Maritz, A. (2008). Entrepreneurial services marketing initiatives facilitating small business growth. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship 21(4), 493-503. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


"Human skills are replacing capital as the most precious corporate resources. One should undertake reading and training in and around your present job so as to develop skills for the next stage of your career. One should have a fair knowledge and skills at information technology. These skills can be used by the person both in employment and self employment."

Pearson B. & Thomas N. (2002) Chapter four: me skills. Book of Me — Life Coach Yourself to Success. 68-86. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


"We find that the effect of technical skills on customer satisfaction is moderated by behavioral skills. We also find that the technical skills of the support personnel are valued more by repeat customers than by new customers."

Ramasubba, N., Mithas S., & Krishnam M.S. (2008) High tech, high touch: the effect of employee skills and customer heterogeneity on customer satisfaction with enterprise system support services. Decision Support Systems. 44(2), 509-523. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


“The firm's agenda must be framed in a way that gives the vision top priority. As many employees as possible must be made to feel "ownership" of the vision. Capabilities that support the vision must be developed. Executives need to ensure that corporate processes are brought in alignment with the vision. Finally, firms need to ensure that personnel policies produce employees capable of realizing the vision.”

Ready, D. & Conger, J. (2008) Enabling bold vision. MIT Sloan Management Review 49(2), 70-76. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from

“Vision can be defined as an organized perception or phenomenon. It is an imagined or perceived pattern of communal possibilities to which others can be drawn, given the necessary enthusiasm and momentum on the part of the leader who is promulgating that vision.”

Morden, T (1997) Vision and holism. Management Decision (35) 9 pp 668-676 retrieved on August 30, 2008 from

“A shared vision is intended to generate a clear organizational purpose and promote the necessary changes in the organization so that it can achieve its desired future outcomes. It is a response to the question, ‘What do we want to create?’”

Hoe, S. (2007). Shared vision: a development tool for organizational learning. Development and Learning in Organizations 21(4). Retrieved on November 10, 2008 from

“Companies frequently develop vision and mission statements about being at the top of their industry, the great service they provide to customers, and their rewarding work environment. Yet more often than not, these statements are so far from reality that they become joke fodder for customers and employees alike. It doesn’t have to be this way. Your company really can keep its promises— but first you must create a culture of execution”

Lepsinger, R. (2008, May). Starting an execution revolution. Industrial Management, 50(3), 27-30.

“The SP process begins with a concrete mission statement and a solid vision statement. The mission defines the organization—answering the ‘who, what, where’ questions. The vision is a measurable target in the future. Following these, more granular objectives are created, each supporting the mission and vision.”

Sagi, J., (2007). Lessons from management: Using strategic planning concepts to develop a universal futuring model. Futures Research Quarterly 23(3), 39-45. Retrieved on November 10, 2008from

“Remember that passion is natural. With the right relationships and targets, you'll challenge and support each other to behave your way to your vision.”

Khan, O. (2008). Liberating passion. Leadership Excellence, 12. Retrieved on November 10, 2008 from


“Be S.M.A.R.T. about setting goals. Make them specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and tangible. Write down each benefit derived from accomplishing your daily tasks.”

Kagan, J. (2005). Setting goals in 2005. RDH 25(1), 12-75. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


“Leadership is a kind of successful performance (broadly defined by attitudes of particular social groups) resulting from the interaction of particular mental abilities, character and affective traits, under particular conditions. Certain so-called character and personality traits do not determine leadership except in a particular environment with a particular social group.”

Schoenfeld, B.N. (1948, May). The psychological characteristics of leaderships. Social Forces, 26(4), pp.391-396. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

“Leadership isn't based solely on a person's role. It has to be earned. Being able to engender trust in others is an essential leadership trait. This comes from demonstrating consistent honesty and integrity in personal behaviors. When making decisions a leader needs to listen to the viewpoints of other people and involve them in the process.”

Gaunt, K. Meeting (2007) Meeting people’s needs. New Zealand Management (54) 1 Retrieved August 29, 2008 from

“Charismatic Leaders are able to formulate and articulate inspirational vision and behaviors that foster an impression that they and their mission are extraordinary. Individuals choose to follow such leaders not simply because of the formal authority of the leader but also on the basis of the perceptions of the basis of the perceptions of the leader’s extraordinary character.”

Cicero, L., & Pierro, A. (2007). Charismatic leadership and organizational outcomes: The mediating role of employee’s work-group identification. International journal of psychology 42(5), 297-306. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from:

“Efran and Patterson (1974) found that more attractive candidates were more successful in a Canadian parliamentary election. Mazur, Mazur, and Keating (1984) found that more dominant-looking men achieved higher rank in the cadet corps at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Cherulnik, Turns, and Wilderman (1990) found that more attractive and less babyfaced students were more likely to be leaders in their high school senior class and more likely to be identified as leaders from their yearbook photographs.”

Cherulnik, P. D. (1995) Physical appearance, social skill, and performance as a leadership candidate. Basic & Applied Social Psychology 16(3), 287-295. Retrieved November 4, 2008, from

“In essence leaders need to shift the belief that if they can just think clearly enough and work hard enough, then this will be enough to create success. It won’t be. These qualities are certainly valuable, but it is through knowing who they want to ‘be’ and acting in accordance with this sense of themselves, that leaders will develop purpose and velocity in both their business and home lives.”

Landale, A. (2008). Who are you being? Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 61, p.21. Retrieved on November 10, 2008 from

"Each person’s capacity for leadership varies – it may take the form of extensive knowledge of a particular subject, adaptability to a certain situation, open-mindedness, relevant experience, composure in a crisis – anything which differentiates that person from others, and encourages them to take action. Once an individual has performed this ‘Act of Leadership,’ that person is beginning to both look and sound like a leader."

Little, R. (2008) A lesson in leadership. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 61, 28-29. Retrieved November 5, 2008 from

"Leaders need to be able to inspire high performance and create highly adaptive corporate cultures rather than just commanding and controlling employees like leaders of the past. Some other characteristics the author suggests are thinking outside the box, look beyond numbers when running the company, focusing on the core strategy and creating a solid network of friends."

Gibson R. (2003) Rethinking the leadership agenda. Financial Executive. 19(5) 30-34. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from

"Leadership is knowing where you need to go - a clear vision- and sharing that vision to create a common purpose. It is the ability to inspire people to action and the ability to create leaders from followers. Leadership always results in change. On the other hand management is knowing what you have to do to get there… It is not the absolute or dictatorial use of power."

Schneider, M. (2003). Management vs. leadership. Aftermarket Business 113(9), p.11. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from

“Organizations need leadership since individual leaders may come and go. Powerful leadership means that an organization’s success will not walk out the door with individual leaders. The key to building leadership: Standardize proven practices that will survive in your organization longer than any individual leader or team.”

Unknown. (2008). Why you should develop leadership-not leaders. HR Focus, p. 3. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from

"Great managers need to be able to think outside the box, to look at the world around them, to think globally—not just how the business has always been done."

Kibort, P (2004). Management vs. leadership. Physician Executive 30, Retrieved November 10, 2008, from

“Leadership is a kind of successful performance (broadly defined by attitudes of particular social groups) resulting from the interaction of particular mental abilities, character and affective traits, under particular conditions. Certain so-called character and personality traits do not determine leadership except in a particular environment with a particular social group.”

Schoenfeld, B.N. (1948, May). The psychological characteristics of leaderships. Social Forces, 26(4), pp.391-396. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from

“We focus on the extent to which leaders (through their relationships and exchanges with followers) influence skill transfer, maintenance and generalization. We also examine two intervening processes (training motivation and outcome expectancy). Our findings, based on surveys from 495 employees, argue for the importance of leader–member exchange for training transfer, with training motivation and outcome expectancy as intervening mechanisms.”

Scaduto, A. (2008). Leader influences on training effectiveness: motivation and outcome expectation processes. International journal of training & development (12) pp. 158-170, Retrieved on November 10, 2008 from


“Supervisors can encourage employees to act both ethically and responsively, or they can emphasize political responsiveness without setting ethical limits. Employees' perceptions of the resulting balance affects their decision-making and their attitudes toward their job. Supervisors set the ethical tone in organizations.”

Yeager, S., Hildreth, B., Miller, G., Rabin, J. (2007). The relative effects of a supervisory emphasis on ethical behavior versus political responsiveness. Public Integrity 9(3), 265-283. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


“Managers, in their roles as leaders, are faced with organizational decisions that impact policies and procedures every day. Leaders are expected to make decisions that will ultimately impact all levels of the organization and beyond (customers and society in general).”

Eberlin, R.J., & Tatum, B.C. (2008). Making just decisions: Organizational justice, decision making, and leadership. Management Decision 46(2), pp. 310-329. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from

"It’s your function as a leader to make decisions no matter how unpopular or onerous the consequences may be. If you make a decision based on your understanding of the situation and you feel it will benefit the organization, then you will have fulfilled your role."

Berman, E. (2005, August). A Leader's House. Industrial Engineer: IE, 37(8), 6-6. Retrieved November 10, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database:

"The way in which people make decisions is heavily influenced by factors such as their culture, economic and political events, the interpersonal roles that they have assumed throughout life, and their basic self-structure."

Amundson, N. E. (1995). An interactive model of career decision making. Journal of Employment Counseling. 32(1) 11-21. Retrieved November 10, 2008 from


“A big reason why employees leave ultimately boils down to poor people skills in management. An employer must ask, “Are my front line leaders good with people?” Many managers were promoted to their positions because they did their first job well, but that doesn’t mean they know how to lead others in the position. When employees are asked for the top three favorable traits in their best boss, 90 percent are people-based skills.”

Unknown. (2008). Why good employees leave. Receivables Report for America’s Health Care Financial Managers. 23(4) p8. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from


“Ongoing communication is the key. You need to keep persuading, keep acknowledging, keep the message coming to make sure the change sticks long enough for the benefits to be recognized generally. The other side of communication counts just as much: asking for feedback and listening attentively to the participants’ concerns and preferences.”

Kislik, L. (2008). Surviving changing times. Multichannel Merchant. 4(8) p 50. Retrieved on November 5, 2008 from


“I believe one particular leadership attribute, hope or hopefulness, is a potential predictor of employees' propensity for exhibiting higher or lower levels of job engagement, satisfaction and retention objectives. For organizational leaders, employing positive psychology, and hopefulness specifically, can have positive effects on employees. And, the higher the leader's level of hope, the more likely employees levels of job satisfaction and retention will be high.”

Mansfield, S. (2008). Leading through hopefulness. Healthcare Executive. 23(6) p56-58. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from


“Discriminatory practices disproportionately affect employee of disadvantaged communities and limit their employment opportunities. These employees are increasingly subjected to poor working environments, minimal or no social protection, and low wages (Robinson, 2001: 13). Similarly, outcomes for organizations in which discrimination occurs may include increased turnover of valuable employees, litigation costs, damage awards if found liable, and negative publicity that may result in numerous unmeasured deleterious effects (Shaffer et al., 2000: 396).”

Ozgener, S. (2008). Diversity management and demographic differences based on discrimination. Journal of Business Ethics. 82(3) p621-631. Retrieved on November 12, 2008 from


“In other words, the expression and consideration of diverse perspectives can enhance group and organization creativity, decision making, problem solving, and strategy generation, rendering performance advantages relative to groups and organizations composed of relatively homogeneous perspectives.”

Stewart, M., & Crary, M. & Humberd, B. (2008). Teaching value in diversity: On the folly of espousing inclusion, while practicing exclusion. Academy of Management Learning & Education. 7(3) p374-386. Retrieved on November 10, 2008 from

“In order to manage increasingly workforce diversity and to prevent discrimination, diversity management is now considered as a major part of strategic human resource management.”

Ozgener, S. Diversity management and demographic differences-based discrimination: The case of Turkish manufacturing industry. Journal of Business Ethics. 82(3) p621-631. Retrieved on November 5, 2008 from


Ephesians 2:10: “For we are God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do.” (NIV)

Luke 4:18-19: “"The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor.”

I Corinthians 3:13: His work will be shown for what it is, because the Day will bring it to light. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will test the quality of each man's work.”

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