TERMS

WEEK 2 TERMS
Leading

“Remember: you can have five years’ experience, or one year’s experience repeated five times. Most people want the former. Additionally, the current business environment is so dynamic that constant fine-tuning is necessary to keep skills well honed and approaches up to date. Staff will often list ‘someone I learn from’ as a prime desired characteristic in their boss. It is usually good people who speak well of their managers. They want them to spend more time with them, and clearly draw benefit from the time that is spent in development (however informal). Training, counseling, everything from running effective group meetings to one-to-one working together to spark ideas and prompt the right approach; it all makes a difference. It all motivates.” (Forsyth, 2006, p. 23)

Forsyth, P. (2006). Motivating your staff. Engineering Management 16(1), 22-23. Retrieved August 22, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=20330990&site=ehost-live

Organizing
“One of the very first questions that company decision makers face and answer is “Do we want to do outsourcing?” Many aggressive managers make the mistake of “jumping the gun” and immediately plunge into outsourcing without adequately performing due diligence, investigation and careful planning. A company contemplating an outsourcing arrangement should not just focus on the countries, cities, vendors, or negotiating prices but also on strategy formulation and the evaluation of potential processes to be outsourced [1]. It would be better to re-phrase this question and make it more problem-centric. There is an overwhelming number of questions that will need to be addressed and analyzed prior to deciding whether or not outsourcing is the right answer for a company.” (Kumar, Aquino & Anderson, 2007, p. 329)

Kumar, S., Aquino, E. C., & Anderson, E. (2007). Application of a process methodology and a strategic decision model for business process outsourcing. Information Knowledge Systems Management 6(4), 323-342. Retrieved August 22, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=28008597&site=ehost-live

Effectiveness-
"The most central of these is that more than ever before we must manage in a turbulent environment and managers must have the skills to cope. The problem of developing effective managerial skills is compounded because the skills are more diffieult to program when we have less environmental certainty. Furthermore, constant change causes rapid obsolescence; the knowledge and skills which were required for a job yesterday are not as valuable today. These faetors place a premium on managers who can grow and develop as their jobs change rather than on administrators of stadc situations. However, we assume that it is possible to develop managers to meet these needs, if certain steps are taken." (Beatty & Morgan, 2005, p.1)

(Beatty, R.W., & Morgan C. P. (2005). Managerial behavior: developing skills for management effectiveness in times of economic setbacks. Human Resource Management 14(4), 1-5. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/detail?vid=3&hid=114&sid=4480429d-889c-47df-9e0e-2f0de4088567%40sessionmgr104&bdata=JnNpdGU9YnNpLWxpdmU%3d#db=bth&AN=12493338

Planning-
"Organizational change is a comprehensive, collaborative, and planned process of solving problems through altering foundational assumptions and beliefs of individuals in order to improve work content, structures, and relationships in organizations. A primary belief is that people collectively define meanings of the work they do and develop ways of doing the work. Depending on how they define work, people develop a technology or coordinated series of tasks to carry it out. Organizational change is a comprehensive and interrelated process. It involves changing work through changing premises about work. Organizational change is a process in which people define a goal or direction that is more desirable than the present state of affairs; it also involves people creating conditions that will align assumptions, goals, and work." (Rusaw, 2007, p. 347)

Rusaw A. C. (2007) Changing public organizations: four approaches. International Journal of Public Administration. 30(3) 347-361. Retrueved August 22, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/detail?vid=3&hid=114&sid=ffe8e4f9-9e7b-4f5d-9a66-9b67fc48fd15%40sessionmgr109&bdata=JnNpdGU9YnNpLWxpdmU%3d#db=bth&AN=24875788

Conceptual Skills-
“A conceptual model is proposed, consisting of service initiatives of the service profit chain, industry best practice, relationship marketing and service quality. Our overall aim is to introduce such initiatives to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty, thereby enhancing growth of these small businesses.” (Maritz, 2008, p. 493)

Maritz, A. (2008). Entrepreneurial services marketing initiatives facilitating small business growth. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship 21(4), 493-503. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=31533926&site=bsi-live

Management vs. Leadership-
“If leadership is anything to do with 'finding the way' in complex circumstances, then it looks likely that leadership is a shared process that is distributed across teams and organizations.” (Carroll, 2008, p. 32)

Carroll, B. (2008). Leadership comes in many different forms. New Zealand Managament supplement, 32. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=33565656&site=bsi-live

WEEK 3 TERMS
Shared Vision (or common vision)

“Although there is much literature on leadership, it provides only a weak evidence base. Alimo-Metcalfe and Alban-Metcalfe (2000) therefore conducted a large study of how staff in the NHS and local government understand leadership, and this identified three abilities of all good leaders. The first is the ability to show genuine concern for others by taking an interest in staff as individuals, seeing the world through their eyes, valuing their contributions, developing their strengths, coaching and mentoring them, and having positive expectations of what they can achieve. The second is the ability to empower others to lead by trusting staff to take decisions on important matters, delegating tasks effectively and ensuring that staff have opportunities to develop their leadership skills by taking on increased responsibilities. The third is the ability to take risks. Nurses are often described as risk averse even though they manage risks all the time.
As the study shows, leadership is about engaging others as partners in the development and achievement of shared visions. No leader is strong in all three abilities, but all leaders should be strong in one and at least effective in the other two. Leaders should therefore consider assessing themselves against these abilities, using staff feedback, in their appraisals.” (Redfern, 2008, p. 11)

Redfern, L. (2007). The challenge of leadership. Nursing Management – UK. 15(4), 10-11. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=33260679&site=ehost-live

Credibility (and leadership)
“Credible people perform at high levels and drive high performance in others. As a result, people want to work with and for credible people.” (McArdle & Ramerman, 2008, p. 78)

McArdle, S., & Ramerman, J. (2008). Credibility can make or break your career. T & D 62(1), 76-78. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=28095167&site=ehost-live

Relationships (and leadership)
“In choice theory (CT) (Glasser, 1998, 2000), frustration is the discrepancy between what is wanted and that what is perceived to be received. The perceived imbalance motivates people to get what they want (or to leave). Emotional intelligence (El) is about being aware of your own needs and those of others and working with both the best you can. It is about priming positive attitudes and behaviors, and as such, Goleman and colleagues coined the term 'primal leader' for leaders that use El. This is in line with CT where 'lead managers' support their team members in fulfilling their needs by making responsible choices (Glasser, 1994). Goleman and colleagues (2002) define El as being intelligent about emotions, and note "The extent to which one is able to manage oneself and the relationships with others is influenced by El". CT assumes that we need to be internally motivated and that good relationships are the core of mental health and happiness. It also assumes that people have the ability to make responsible choices to obtain what they want.” (Schoo, 2008, p. 40)

Schoo, A., (2008). Leaders and their teams: Learning to improve performance with emotional intelligence and using choice theory. International Journal of Reality Therapy. 27(2), 40-45. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=31818868&site=ehost-live

Inspiring (and leadership)-

"Making things happen through leadership also involves: Being results oriented: setting out (via planning) what needs to be achieved, measuring whether it has been achieved and assessing whether the results have led to optimum efficiency and effectiveness. Utilising the art of “getting things done through people.” Leaders must inspire others to want to achieve both the possible and the impossible. Assuming responsibility for the achievement of key goals and objectives, accepting blame for failures and using failure as a learning process." (McLean, 2006, p. 16)

McLean, J. (2008.) Making things happen. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 55, 16. Retrieved August 28, 2008, from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/pdf?vid=5&hid=101&sid=edc64312-276c-4c63-908b-ed4c6f4e5223%40sessionmgr104

Competence (and leadership)-
“Competence must include an ability to manage the systemic nature of organizations and of their interactions with other organizations. The requirement of coordination of assets addresses this dimension of competence. In the first instance, competence requires an ability to coordinate an organization's own firm-specific assets—i.e., the assets within the boundaries of the firm and thus under its direct control—in processes of creating value through product creation and realization. In addition, competence involves accessing and coordinating important firm-addressable assets that lie beyond the boundaries of the firm. Providers of key firm-addressable assets include materials and components suppliers, distributors, consultants, financial institutions and customers.” (Shanchez, 2004, p. 519)

Shanchez, R. (2008.) Understanding competence-based management identifying and managing five modes of competence. Journal of Business Research. 57(5), 518-532. Retrieved August 18, 2008, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V7S-45XTCX3-6&_user=5301161&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=5301161&md5=de1ae4fcf3b68bf7bc00910d25569f43

Modeling Values (and leadership)-
"Each person’s capacity for leadership varies – it may take the form of extensive knowledge of a particular subject, adaptability to a certain situation, open-mindedness, relevant experience, composure in a crisis – anything which differentiates that person from others, and encourages them to take action. Once an individual has performed this ‘Act of Leadership,’ that person is beginning to both look and sound like a leader." (Little, 2008, p.28)

Little, R. (2008) A lesson in leadership. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 61, 28-29. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com/bsi/detail?vid=3&hid=115&sid=887b6efc-eb92-41c2-8d9a-7e9490b5a2ac%40sessionmgr107&bdata=JnNpdGU9YnNpLWxpdmU%3d#db=bth&AN=30014618

Visible Artifacts & Symbols-
“Work itself is dramatically evolving and the results of that evolution can be seen in new — sometimes successful and sometimes not as fortunate — office designs. Technology is creating a huge evolution in office design, affecting where, how, when, and what work is done.” (Wallace, 2000, p. 58)

Wallace, M. C. (2000). Complexity of new office designs: thinking through your future workplace. Searcher 8(10), 58. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=3835749&site=ehost-live

Strong & Weak Cultures-
“A corporate culture is the combination of the values and characteristics that define an organization. It influences the way employees relate to each other, to customers, to shareholders, and to business partners. It drives behaviors and unites employees around a shared set of values. Companies with strong, formally articulated values that are focused on the needs of their constituencies have an important advantage over those without such values.” (Fairbairn, 2005, p. 79)

Fairbairn, U. (2005). HR as a strategic partner: culture change as an American express case study. Human Resource Management 44(1), 79-84. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=16363108&site=ehost-live

Behavioral Addition & Substitution-
“Culture comprises patterns of behavior, that people believe they are working towards and helps provide meaning for their goals for the future. This sets their standards for perception, belief, evaluation and behavior.” (Hooper & Oliphant-Thompson, 1992, pg. 29)

Hooper, R., & Oliphant-Thompson, I. (1992). A change for the better. Management Services 36(6), 29-31. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=12422687&site=ehost-live

WEEK 4 TERMS
Strategic plans

“Our strategic plan, developed over many years, is strong and resilient. We will continue to pursue it, focusing on our Society's purpose, promoting the advancement of our profession and fostering the professional well-being and development of our members.” (Thompson, 2008, p. 10)

Thompson, M. W., (2008). ASSE's continuing journey. Professional Safety. 53(6), 10-37. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=32478942&site=ehost-live

Vision & (or vs.) Mission
“The SP process begins with a concrete mission statement and a solid vision statement. The mission defines the organization—answering the ‘who, what, where’ questions. The vision is a measurable target in the future. Following these, more granular objectives are created, each supporting the mission and vision.” (Sagi, 2007, p. 41)

Sagi, J., (2007). Lessons from management: Using strategic planning concepts to develop a universal futuring model. Futures Research Quarterly 23(3), 39-45. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=31709280&site=ehost-live

Pert Chart-
"A PERT chart is iconic, as is a map and pins used to help solve routing problems. Iconic graphic models may be quite different in concept from traditional mathematical models of the same system and, therefore, offer a new, different, and perhaps, creative look at OR problems." (Bell, 1985, p. 27)

Bell, P.C. (1985). Visual interactive modeling as an operations research technique. Interfaces. 15(4), 26-33. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from, http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=6688533&site=bsi-live

Gantt Chart-
"Henry Laurence Gantt (1861-1919) was a mechanical engineer, management consultant, and industry advisor. Henry Laurence Gantt developed Gantt charts in the second decade of the 20th century. Gantt Charts were and are used as a visual tool to show scheduled and actual progress of projects. Henry Gantts contribution to the management process is honored today through the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal. The award established in 1929 is given for distinguished achievement in management and for service to the community [2]. In the traditional approach, we can distinguish the following five stages in the development of a project. • project initiation; • project planning; • project production; • project monitoring; and • project completion" (Kumar, 2005, p. 15)

Kumar, P. P. (2005) Effective use of gantt chart for managing large scale projects. Cost Engineering. 47(7), 14-21. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from, http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=17721066&site=bsi-live

Nominal Group Technique-
“By using the ‘‘snowball’’ nominal technique, allowed the researchers for this project to both organize observations into themes as well as allow participants to hierarchically rank these observations (after much group discussion) in terms of importance.” (Graber & Graber, 2002, p. 116)

Graber, J. & Graber, S. (2002). Using focus and nominal group techniques for a better understanding of the transit disadvantaged needs. Transportation Planning & Technology 25(2), 103-120. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=10955826&site=ehost-live

Brainstorming-
“The only way an idea can become profitable is by taking it from the individual mind to the brainstorming session and on to the office or lobby. The creative funnel process demonstrates how and when to turn constraints into idea generation to bring true gems into fruition.” (Sweeney, 2008, p. 8)

Sweeney, J. (2008). Cultivate staff creativity. Point for Credit Union Research & Advice, 8. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=31721424&site=ehost-live

WEEK 5 TERMS
Ethics

“Principle ethics focuses on obligations and on behavior, whereas virtue ethics focuses on the ideals to which an individual might aspire, and on individual character. Principles might govern compliance with a racial quota, whereas virtue ethics would emphasize striving toward the higher goal of a multicultural organization.” (Talley, 1997, p. 51)

Talley, F. J., (1997). Ethics in management. New Directions for Student Services (77), 45-66. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9708242954&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Ethical Behavior
“Moral and ethical systems attempt to provide answers to how and why human beings ought to behave toward one another. Many such systems have been developed during the course of human history. The justification for claiming that such systems are binding on human conduct has come from two different sources: by an appeal to authority or by an appeal to reason. However, I feel that neither appeal is sufficient to either justify or explain human ethical behavior and that no ethical or moral system can be simultaneously complete, consistent, and universalized.” (Hall, 1986, p. 18)

Hall, L. K. B., (1986). The irrational basis of ethics. Humanist 46(4), 18-33. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=10123963&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Workplace Deviance
“Workplace deviance can occur individually in isolation and also in groups, but group pilfering usually results in greater losses to the company/employer than individuals working in isolation. The form (individual vs. group) and prevalence of workplace deviance depends on cultural and occupational characteristics.” (Alarid, 2005, p. 628)

Alarid, L. F., (2005). Turning a profit or just passing the time? A gender comparison of prisoner jobs and workplace deviance in the sub-Rosa economy. Deviant Behavior 26(6), 621-641. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=18622095&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Organizational Culture-
"Entrepreneurship mostly is related with the beginning of organization. In growing organization entrepreneurship expands its meaning – there we can talk about corporate entrepreneurship. It reveals itself through new business creation in the active organization, through renewal, change and development of current organizations, through breaking and changing of established rules inside or outside organization, so organization becomes more flexible, adaptive and competitive, also improving effectiveness of organization activity." (Duobiene, 2008, p. 90)

Duobiene, J. (2008). The role of organizational culture in sustaining corporate entrepreneurship. Economics & Management. 90. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32562918&site=bsi-live

Political Correctness-
“Political Correctness: This involves anything from a doctrinaire denial of biological influences on human behaviour to laments about the fashionably oppressed workers or consumers. Organizational behavior writers and teachers seems particularly eager to jump on any politically correct bandwagon, like diversity, espousing the accepted view or following lay enthusiasms like emotional intelligence. Fashion and managerial acceptance, not veridicality, seem the important criteria for researching and writing about a topic, which is not how science should or does proceed. Often fairly “thin” ideas like management-by-walking-about are picked up and dropped by fickle consultants and researchers more eager to please managers and fit in with the zeitgeist than “do science”.” (Furnham, 2004, p. 432)

Furnham, A. (2004). The future (and past) or work psychology and organizational behavior: a personal view. Management Revue. 15(4). 420-436. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=15071597&site=bsi-live

Attitudes-
“Attitudes reflect how people feel about something. For example, an individual who claims to dislike discrimination at work is expressing her/his attitude about this matter. Because attitudes can seem like objective truths they may also be highly resistant to change, but it is important to remember that they are human constructions, produced by people. Converting a belief into an attitude requires some value laden element, a sense of what a person considers desirable, good, and worthwhile. This suggests that attitudes hold a moral dimension as well. They serve as general guides to people’s behavior with respect to the object of the attitude, giving rise to a consistently favorable or unfavorable response pattern.” (Lamsa, Vehkapera, Puttonen & Pesonen, 2008, p. 48)

Lamsa, A., Vehkapera, M., Puttonen, T. & Pesonen, H. (2008). Effect of business education on women and men students’ attitudes on corporate responsibility in society. Journal of Business Ethics. 82(1) Retrieved September 9, 2008, from, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=33543173&site=bsi-live

Morals Rights-
“By contrast, many people, philosophers and non-philosophers alike, hold that there are moral rights, that is, specific rights which exist as part of the moral nature of things. These rights are held to exist, that is, persons are held to have these rights, independently of anyone's choosing that this he so.” (Ozar, 1985, p. 279)

Ozar, D. (1985). Do corporations have moral rights. Journal of Business Ethics 4(4), 277-281. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5403911&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Justice-
“The methodological assumption of the rational human being thus turns out to be a carefully covered-up normative claim: everybody ought to behave strictly according to their own self-interest; policy makers ought to create conditions where this claim can be fulfilled best; they ought to free the market from all the constraints that possibly hinder its superior mechanism of coordinating the individual interests – hence, the claim for more, not less market and in order to maximize welfare and for the economic benefits to trickle down even to the poorest of our society.” (Wettstein, 2008, p. 252)

Wettstein, F. (2008). Let’s talk rights: Messages for the just corporation–transforming the economy through the language of rights. Journal of Business Ethics 78(1/2), 247-263. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=28541402&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Practical-
“Like the individual moral agent, it is through responsibility that the corporation is able to discover its true aim and meaning. Its identity is given in the One for the Other, in the way it responds to the call of others with whom it has relations.” (Soares, 2008, p. 549)

Soares, C. (2008). Corporate Legal responsibility: A Levinasian perspective. Journal of Business Ethics 81(3), 545-553. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=33281548&site=ehost-live&scope=site

WEEK 6 TERMS
Closure

“Closure techniques certainly do not replace such effective teaching methods as stating clear objectives, allowing for practice, and facilitating group discussion. But they can help stimulate mental processing during important moments of instruction.” (Adams, Zosel, Petrini, 1990, p. 35)

Adams, J. D., Zosel, M. J., & Petrini, C. (1990). How to win closure and influence people. Training & Development Journal 44(1), 31-35. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9086065&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Attribute theory
“Attribution theory (Weiner 1986, 1995) states that the attributions people make about the cause of an outcome influence emotions, expectancies, and behavior toward the individual affected by the outcome.” (Phelan, 2005, pp. 308-309)

Phelan, J. C. (2005). Geneticization of deviant behavior and consequences for stigma: The case of mental illness. Journal of Health & Social Behavior 46(4), 307-322. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=19346603&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Perceptual Filters-
"An emerging result highlights the role of the customer as a ‘perceptual filter’ between the different channels of employees. Research limitations/implications – Customer opportunism is studied via channels employees perceptions. An investigation using a customer survey may help to better understand this construct, e.g. to identify its antecedents, and to measure it precisely. Moreover, further qualitative and/or quantitative studies with larger sample sizes are needed to try and generalize these results. Practical implications – It is recommended not to forget that customers can facilitate or hinder multichannel coordination." (Ple, 2006, p.329)

Ple, L. (2006). Managing multichannel coordination in retail banking: the influence of customer participation. International Journal of Bank Marketing. 24(5). Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=22616626&site=bsi-live

Selective Perception-
"The results of these studies have been interpreted as refiecting "selective perception," these studies actually measured this construct in a special, limited sense. Both sets of researchers operationally defined selective perception only in terms of its direction. They assumed that selective perception is manifested in information processing directed at content that matches current functional role or functional experience because familiar content is most meaningful to the perceiver (Lord, 1985). They did not focus on the actual selectivity of the perception—that is, the breadtb or narrowness of subjects' information processing." (Beyer Chattopadhyay, George, Glick, Ogilvie, Pugliese, 1997, p. 717)

Beyer, J. Chattopadhyay P., George E., Glick W. H., OgilvieD., Pugliese D. (1997). The selective perception of managers revisited. Academy of Management Journal. 40(30). 716-737. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=9708122231&site=bsi-live

Nonverbal Communication-
“Accordingly, the literal meaning of the words accounts for only 7% of how your message will be received, and this licenses endless books and training courses on body language and speaking style.” (Brophy, 2008, p. 57)

Brophy, B. (2008). Seeing them with their clothes on oral communication myths exploded. Accountancy Ireland 40(1), 56-57. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=29727166&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Communication Medium-
“Traditional media like newspaper, radio, television and telephone are generally based on centralized production and distribution. The growth of these media has been restricted to a particular area because of their own inherent characteristics. The new media, especially the Internet does not face such problems. It is more of a borderless media which is transformed into a network of networks. It gives a wide range of benefits to its users. It has become an indispensable communication medium for the world population.” (Subhash, 2008, p. 25)

Subhash, J. (2008). Understanding internet usage pattern among students in a northeastern state of India. ICFAI Journal of Marketing Management 7(1), 25-36. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=31198232&site=ehost-live&scope=site

WEEK 7 TERMS
Disability

“Those individuals who have difficulty in learning, remembering, or concentrating (LRC) are defined in the ACS as having a cognitive disability as opposed to a physical disability.” (Gamboa, Holland, Tierney, & Gibson, 2006, p. 328)

Gamboa Jr, A. M., Holland, G. H., Tierney, J. P., & Gibson, D. S. (2006). American community survey: Earnings and employment for persons with traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation 21(4), 327-333. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=24676650&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Disability discrimination
“In the case of disability discrimination, interpersonal mechanisms operate by transforming coworkers’ and supervisors’ beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions of disability into differential behavior that can be observed in routine interactions between workers with disabilities and their coworkers.” (Robert & Harlan, 2006, p. 602)

Robert, P. M. & Harlan, S. L. (2006). Mechanisms of disability discrimination in large bureaucratic organizations: Ascriptive inequalities in the workplace. Sociological Quarterly 47(4), 599-630. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=22674842&site=ehost-live&scope=site

The Big 5 Personality Model: Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, conscientiousness, Openness to experience
“The Five-Factor Model…asserts that normal human personality can be described using five general dimensions: (O) Openness to Experience (imagination, curiosity, and intellectualism), (C) Conscientiousness (impulse control, planning, and organization), (E) Extraversion (sociable and outgoing), (A) Agreeableness (altruism and empathy), and (N) Neuroticism (psychological maladjustment and more experiences of unpleasant emotions).” (Kelly, 2006, p. 300)

Kelly, K. E. (2006). Relationship between the five-factor model of personality and the scale of creative attributes and behavior: A validational study. Individual Differences Research 4(5), 299-305. Retrieved September 24, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=22857616&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Sex Discrimination-
“Gender wage discrimination is not driven by productivity differences but is sex-based. Economists define discrimination as willingness to pay, either directly or in the form of a reduced income, to be associated with some people instead of others.” (Shen & Deng, 2008, p. 113)

Shen J. & Deng X. (2008). Gender wage inequality in the transitional Chinese economy: A critical review of post-reform research. Journal of Organisational Transformation & Social Change. 5(2), 109-127. Retrieved September 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32549097&site=bsi-live

Glass Ceiling-
“Glass ceiling” [is used] to describe the invisible barrier that prevents women from reaching top management positions. The limited numbers of women CEOs running companies…may be due in part, to “glass walls”…that restrict women to certain fields and positions, are often “dead-end” paths lacking upward mobility.”

Yasin, J. & Helms, M. M. (2007). Population, employment, and marital statustrends: Predicting the number of women in managerial positions. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict. 11(2), 37-51. Retrieved Septemeber 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=29964217&site=bsi-live

Racial and Ethnic Discrimination-
“We focus here on Blacks, and not minorities in general, because the Black experience in America has been, and continues to be, especially distinct and because barriers to upward mobility within organizations are especially strong.” (Simons, Liu, Friedman, & Parks, 2007, p. 651)

Simons, T., Liu, L. A., Friedman, R., Parks, J. M. (2007). Racial differences in sensitivity to behavioral integrity: attitudinal consequences, in-group effects, and "trickle down" among black and non-black employees. Journal of Applied Psychology. 92(3), 650-665. Retrieved September 26, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=25143792&site=bsi-live

WEEK 8 TERMS
Equity theory: overrewarding
“When rewards are lower than expected on the basis of the input levels (i.e., underreward) or are higher than expected (i.e., overreward), individuals may deflate or inflate self-evaluations and other evaluations to distort the ratio perceptually and thus to create equity.” (Hegtvedt, 1988, p. 143)

Hegtvedt, K. A. (1988). Social determinants of perception: Power, equity, and status effects in an exchange situation. Social Psychology Quarterly 51(2), 141-153. Retrieved October 1, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=13545278&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Equity theory: underrewarding
“When inequity is in the form of an excess of inputs over outputs, underequity or underreward results.” (Abraham, 1999, p. 206)

Abraham, R. (1999). The relationship between differential inequity, job satisfaction, intention to turnover, and self-esteem. Journal of Psychology 133(2), 205-215. Retrieved October 1, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=1773876&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Extrinsic Rewards vs. Intrinsic Rewards-
“Intrinsic rewards are those that exist in the job itself…includes status, recognition, praise from superiors, personal satisfaction, and feelings of self-esteem….Extrinsic rewards are external to the job…pay, fringe benefits, job security, promotions, private office space. Employees are thought to be motivated to work hard to produce quality results when extrinsic rewards.” (Mahaney & Lederer, 2006, p.43)

Mahaney, R. C., Lederer, A. L. (2008). The effect of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for developers on information systems project success. Project Management Journal. 37(4), 42-54. Retrieved September 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=22287063&site=bsi-live

Equity Theory, Inputs, Outputs, Referents-
“Equity theory in its most pristine form suggests that an individual will feel dissatisfied if his/her own inputs are greater than the benefits achieved, regardless of the benefit input ratios of other people.” (Au, Ngai, Cheng, 2008, p. 45)

Au, N., Ngai, E. W. T., Cheng, T. C. E. (2008). Extending the understanding of end user information systems satisfaction formation: An equitable needs fulfillment model approach. MIS Quarterly. 32(1), 43-66. Retrieved September 29, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=29978137&site=bsi-live

WEEK 9 TERMS
Self-managing team
“‘Self-management’ is an attribute of teams meaning that authority over operating tasks has been fully delegated to the team. Self-managing teams do best when the tasks to be addressed are self-contained and organized around products, customers, or services.” (Feifer, Nocella, DeArtola, Rowden, & Morrison, 2003, p. 21)

Feifer, C., Nocella, K., DeArtola, I., Rowden, S., & Morrison, S. (2003). Self-managing teams. Topics in Health Information Management 24(1), 21-28. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9228689&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Self-designing team
“The team's design includes the composition of the team, team size, role of the team leader, the decision-making process, and methods for identifying best procedures.” (Yeatts, & Barnes, 1996, under “Team design issues” section, ¶ 1)

Yeatts, D. E. & Barnes, D. (1996). What are the key factors for self-managed team success?, Journal for Quality & Participation 19(3), 68-76. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9607243022&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Top Management Team
“Differences in TMT composition lead to different strategic choices and ultimately to different performance outcomes. A frequently examined aspect of TMT composition is diversity, usually defined as the degree to which TMT members differ with respect to background characteristics such as functional experience, age, and tenure” (Cannella, A. & Park, J. & Lee, H, 2008).

Cannella, A. & Park, J. & Lee, H. (2008). Top management team functional background diversity and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal. 51(4). Pp 768-784. Retrieved on October 7, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=5&hid=120&sid=a0fcfbd8-f831-49ef-8d8e-7ea89d5f813b%40sessionmgr103

Work Team
“Team leaders influence their organizational environment through their management techniques and their leadership abilities; organizing assignments, tracking progress, and rewarding performance are all under the control of the work team leader” (White & Lean, 2008).

White, D. & Lean, E. (2008). The impact of perceived leader integrity on subordinates in a work team environment. Journal of Business Ethics. 81(4). Pp 765-778. Retrieved on October 7, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=2&hid=107&sid=8af35d87-6f51-44ba-b556-3e671dbd4d4e%40sessionmgr104

Cross-Training-
"Cross-training within the finance department can also develop more well-rounded staff members. Not only does it help individuals expand their skills, but it has the added benefit of encouraging employees to remain motivated and interested in their work, especially if there are not immediate opportunities for advancement." (McDonald, 2008, p.20)

McDonald, P. (2008). Succession planning as a retention tool. Financial Executive. 24(6), 18-21. Retrieved September 9, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=33176054&site=bsi-live

Social Loafing-
"Social loafing is the tendency to exert less effort when working with others than when working alone. Social loafing … latter grows out of rational calculation but can occur without conscious awareness…the primary origins of social loafing are motivational." (Wagner, 1995, p.154)

Wagner, J. A. (1995). Studies of individualism-collectivism: Effects on cooperation in groups. Academy of Management Journal. 38(1), 152- 172. Retrieved September 9, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=9503271834&site=bsi-live

Sequential Task Interdependence-
“Sequential interdependence is associated with activities ordered in serial fashion where one’s input is another’s output. It occurs, for example among firms in a supply chain, where the actions of one firm can only be performed after successful completion of the action by another.” (Vertical, 2006, p. 2)

(2006) Vertical and horizontal relationships in an industrial cluster: Implications for firms’ access to global markets. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1-6. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=22896792&site=bsi-live

Reciprocal Task Interdependence-
“For example, if the activities needed to operate a particular set of machines, to maintain and repair them, and to decide how to allocate them to different productions all require reciprocally specific competences, then the activities of production, maintenance, and production planning can be effectively and efficiently conducted by the same worker or by the same group of workers.” (Grandori & Bagdadli, 2000, p. 305)

Grandori, A. & Bagdadli, S. (2000). Part III: Forms of organization: Chapter 10: The organization of work: Structures. Organization and Economic Behaviour, 300-333. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=17444667&site=bsi-live

WEEK 10 TERMS
Leadership—
"Leadership is about making emotional connections to motivate and inspire people, and our effectiveness at doing this has strong cultural overtones."

Hemp, P. (2008). Where will we find tomorrow’s leaders? Harvard Business Review. 86(1) p123-129. Retrieved on October 14, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=24&hid=101&sid=176d5b0b-6d02-459f-b006-d86019003d38%40sessionmgr109

Trait theory—
"The trait theory of leadership is advanced by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) leadership self-efficacy in linking neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness and (b) the moderating role of job demands and job autonomy in influencing the mediation."

Ng, K. & Ang, S. & Chan, K. (2008). Personality and leader effectiveness: A moderated mediation model of leadership self-efficacy, job demands, and job autonomy. Journal of Applied Psychology 93(4). P733-743. Retrieved on October 14, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=6&hid=106&sid=c105d33c-02c5-4ccc-b87e-f5866ff3665f%40sessionmgr109

University of Michigan studies- employee orientation and production orientation—
“The Michigan researchers identified two orientations of supervision, production centered and employee centered…[and] came to the conclusion that effective leadership is dependent on an interaction between employee orientation (consideration) and production orientation (initiating structure)” (Sellgren, Ekvall, & Tomson, 2006, p. 349)

Sellgren, S., Ekvall, G., & Tomson, G. (2006). Leadership styles in nursing management: Preferred and perceived. Journal of Nursing Management 14(5), 348-355. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=21170754&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Blake and Mouton's Leadership (or managerial) Grid—
“Blake and Mouton (1964) have extended the work of Likert into a conceptual model of managerial behavior called the Managerial Grid. Two concerns of major importance to the individual manager have been identified by them as (1) a concern for production, and (2) a concern for people.” (Viano, 1973, p. 91)

Viano, E. (1973). The styles of management inventory: A methodological analysis of a training and research instrument. Quality & Quantity 7(1), 91-106. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9957949&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Leader-Member exchange-
“Employees who experience strong LMX may benefit from more supervisory attention (i.e. receive more training, guidance), especially during early employment periods, thereby improving their skill sets and enhancing their marketability. Such improvements in job skills may, in turn, make the employee more attractive to other employers and ultimately lead to greater turnover.” (Morrow, Suzuki, Crum, Ruben, & Pautsch, 2005, p. 682)

Morrow, P. C., Suzuki, Y., Crum, M. R., Ruben R., & Pautsch, G. (2005) The role of leader-member exchange in high turnover work environments. Journal of managerial psychology 20(8), 681-694. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/02683940510631444

In group, out group didactic relationship-

“In-group (high LMX) members typically are high performers and receive positive supervisor evaluations while out-group (low LMX) members typically perform below expectations and receive negative supervisor evaluations. High LMX members will assist the leader in maintaining team ‘harmony’ and perform in numerous ways that exceed the boundaries of the employment contract.” (Henry, 1994, p. 25)

Henry, J. W. (1994) The service employee's pivotal role in organizational success. Journal of services marketing 8(4), 25-35. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/08876049410070709

Skills approach: Technical, Human Skills, Conceptual-
“Technical Skills: understanding of and proficiency in a specific kind of activity … involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability. Human skills: Ability to work effectively as a group and to build cooperative effort. Conceptual Skills: Ability to see the enterprise as a whole…extends to visualizing the relationship of the individual business to the industry, the community, and the political, social, and economic forces of the nation as a whole.” (Dubinsky & Ingram, 1984, p.45)

Dubinsky, A. J. & Ingram, T. N. (1984). From selling to sales management: A developmental model. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 1(3), 43-52. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=8908198&site=bsi-live.

Ohio State Studies: Initiating Structure vs. (or) consideration-
“Consideration is the degree to which a leader shows concern and respect for followers. Initiating structure is the degree to which a leader defines and organizes his role and roles of followers, is oriented toward goal attainment and establishes well defined patterns and channels of communication. Consideration and initiating structure…[are] the most robust of leadership concepts.” (Judge, Piccolo, & Ilies, 2004, p.36)

Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., &Ilies, R. (2004). The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research. Journal of Applied Psychology. 89(1), 36-51. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=12478359&site=bsi-live.

WEEK 11 TERMS
Quid pro quo sexual harassment
“Quid pro quo – literally meaning ‘something for something’ – is an expression describing the legal nature of a contract in which each person receives something for what he or she gives (Walsh 1989). QPQ sexual harassment can be described as ‘the solicitation of sexual compliance through promises of reward or threats of punishment” (Brase & Miller, 2001, p. 242)

Brase, G. L. & Miller, R. L. (2001). Differences in the perception of and reasoning about quid pro quo sexual harassment. Psychology, Evolution & Gender 3(3), 241-264. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=6711920&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Hostile work environment
“The working environment becomes intimidating or offensive as a result of sexual looks, behaviors, photographs, comments, jokes, and/or threats. The hostility of the environment must be such that it unduly interferes with the victim-employee’s work performance.” (Gross, 2008, p. 39)

Gross, B. (2008). Sexual harassment: Dressing for a hostile environment. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association 11(3), 38-41. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=34497299&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Recruiting
“In carrying out a recruitment exercise, corporations must offer easy ubiquitous access to enterprise resources and other job information. There should be a flexible means of getting information across to job seekers that have applied for jobs in an enterprise.” (Azeta, Ikhu-Omoregbe, Ayo1, & Atayero, 2008, p. 96)

A. A., Azeta, N. A., Ikhu-Omoregbe, C. K., Ayo1, & A. A., Atayero (2008). A software engineered voice-enabled job recruitment portal system. European Journal of Scientific Research 21(1), 95-103. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=34182489&site=ehost-live&scope=site

(*article only provided names as seen here, last name abbrev. and first name; opposite of APA format)

Adverse Impact-
“Adverse impact as ‘A substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion, or other employment decision which works to the disadvantage of members of a race, sex, or ethnic group.’ The employer can defend its use …by showing…’valid and consistent with business necessity.'" (Pyburn, Ployhart,& Kravitz, 2008, p.144)

Pyburn, K. M., Ployart, R. E., & Kravitz, D. A. (2008). The diversity-validity dilemma: Overview and legal context. Personal Psychology. 61(1), 143-151. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=28831629&site=bsi-live.

Four-Fifths (or 80% Rule)-
"An election rate for any racial, ethnic, or sex group which is less than four-fifths (4/5) (or 80 percent) of the rate for the group with the highest rate will generally be regarded as evidence of adverse impact…" (Greenberg, 1979, p.762)

Greenberg, I. (1979). An analysis of the eeocc ‘four fifths’ rule. Management Science. 25(8), 762-769. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=7364100&site=bsi-live.

Sexual Harassment-
“Sexual harassment initially viewed it as sexually motivated. U.S. courts have ruled that sexual harassment constitutes sex discrimination…view harassment as the expression of natural sexual urges that are expressed more by men than by women because, proponents argue, men are inherently more sexually aggressive and promiscuous than women” (Berdahl, 2007, p. 642)

Berdahl, J, L. (2007). Harassment based on sex: Protecting social status in the context of gender hierarchy. Academy of Management Review. 32(2), 641-658. Retrieved October 24, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=24351879&site=bsi-live.

Downsizing & ERIPs-
“To the extent possible, an ERIP should limit eligibility to those positions that are actually excess. Paying an enhanced retirement benefit, coupled with the expenses of replacing an employee, which may also perhaps include employment agency fees, is clearly an odd way to cut costs. Obviously age discrimination laws place some limits on this approach.” (Stein, 1991, pg. 674)

Stein, L. (1991). Thought the looking glass: An analysis of window plans. Labor Law Journal 42(10), 665-676. Retrieved October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5877220&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Turnover (Functional & Dysfunctional)-
“Thus, when “good” performers leave an organization, their replacement is likely to be of lower caliber (dysfunctional turnover), while the “poor” performing employee is apt to be replaced by an individual of higher quality (functional turnover).” (Johnson, Griffeth, & Griffin, 2000, pg. 400)

Johnson, J., Griffeth, R. & Griffin, M. (2000). Factors discriminating functional and dysfunctional salesforce turnover. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 15(6/7), 399-415. Retrieved October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=3869122&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Phased Retirement-
“To help achieve balance, the report suggests identifying needs, managing flexibility ef-fectively, offering phased retirement, and tailoring benefits to appeal to older workers (adding more vacation time and one-month paid sabbaticals for veterans).” (2008, pg. 2)

(2008). Achieving work-life balance called crucial to younger generation. Work-Life Newsbrief & Trend Report, 2. Retrieved October 25, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34433197&site=ehost-live&scope=site

WEEK 12 TERMS
Related diversification
“Related diversification tends to be favored slightly by both theories and empirical observations. To classify samples into related and unrelated diversifications, four qualitative diversification schemes were operationalized: geographic expansion, increase of market share, vertical integration, and the conglomerate type of diversification.” (Choi & Russell, 2004, p. 523)

Choi, J. & Russell, J. S. (2004). Economic gains around mergers and acquisitions in the construction industry of the United States of America. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 31(3), 513-525. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=13597850&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Grand strategy
“In business administration, by analogy, Grand Strategy is the choice of a category of actions leading to a company’s success. This choice having been made, the usual, or logical, strategy will follow for detailing these actions.” (Pereira, 2006, p. 3)

Pereira, G. S. R. (2006). Grand strategy in business organizations. BSP Review, 1-28. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from http://www.revistabsp.com.br/0608/artigo1en.pdf

Cost leadership
“Low cost producers typically sell a standard, or no frills, product and place considerable emphasis on reaping scale or absolute cost advantages from all sources. If a firm can achieve and sustain overall cost leadership, then it will be above an average performer in its industry provided it can command prices at or near the industry average. (Porter, 1985)” (Alamdari & Fagan, 2005, p. 380)

Alamdari, F. & Fagan, S. (2005). Impact of the adherence to the original low-cost model on the profitability of low-cost airlines. Transport Reviews 25(3), 377-392. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=16670064&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Situational Analysis
“It [Michael E. Porter’s Competitive Strategy and Competitive Advantage models] is designed as a self-assessing diagnostic instrument, to be used by itself or as part of a broad SWOT competitive analysis”.

Lussier, R. & Baeder, R. (1994). Measuring global practices: Global strategic planning through company situational analysis. Business Horizons. 37(5) p 56. Retrieved on October 28, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=15&hid=120&sid=716e175d-d14b-4796-94fe-6eaef6280f99%40sessionmgr107

Diversification
“Diversification is a major draw for global real estate securities, "The advantages of investing in global property stocks are similar to those of investing in U.S. property stocks, with some added benefits," says John Robertson.”

Crowe, S. (2008). Global reits add diversification to portfolios. Financial Planning. 38(10) p14-16. Retrieved on October 28, 2008 from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/bsi/pdf?vid=3&hid=116&sid=cd7e0676-9bbf-4d38-9c3b-b47c33277011%40sessionmgr107

Portfolio Strategy
“We study a pure alpha strategy, more precisely a portfolio strategy not related to the market risk and delivering abnormal returns. We focus on a long–short market neutral value strategy6 based on low price-to-earnings ratios (P/E).”

Caicedo-Llano, J. & Dionusopoulos, T. (2007). Market integration: A risk-budgeting guide for pure alpha investors. Edhec Business School, University of Paris. Retrieved from October 28, 2008 from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VGV-4RKTNC2-2&_user=5301161&_coverDate=10%2F31%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=5301161&md5=2fc6760c642a21339f1e2f713024c1cd

Acquisition-
"We recommend a seven-step process that will help balance the needs of the business during an acquisition…Begin planning; Evaluate personnel in finance and accounting functions; Safeguard the assets of the business; Ensure adequacy of financial controls; Review information technology systems; Integrate financial and management accounting; Assess progress, and perform post-integration analysis." (Tarasovich, Lyons, Gerlach, 2008, p.26)

Tarasovich, B., Lyons, B. & Gerlach, J. (2008). After the acquisition. Strategic Finance. 90(4), 25-31. Retrieved October 31, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=34585348&site=bsi-live.

Unrelated Diversification-
"The second rationale is the agency theory argument. According to this argument, with separation of ownership and control, divergence of interests between top managers and owners and the existence of information asymmetry would create necessary conditions for top managers to pursue unrelated diversification strategies that depress firm performance.” (Unknown author, 2003, p.245)

Unknown Author. (2003). Diversification and economic performance: An empirical assessment of Chinese firms. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 20(2), 243-265. Retrieved October 31, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=11197759&site=bsi-live.

BCG Matrix- Star, question mark, cash-cow, dog-
"The BCG model assumes there is a close association between sales volume and cash flow. This is one of the great truisms of strategic management theory, also backed by the profit impact of market strategy… The BCG [matrix] has as its dimensions market share and market growth rate. Each is broken into high and low." (Peters, 1993, p. 49)

Peter, J. (1993). On product and service management. Management Decision. 31(6), 49-51. Retrieved October 31, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=9411110828&site=bsi-live.

Organic Organizations-
“Organic organizations are characterized by a contributive nature of special knowledge and experience to the common task of the concern, flexible task performance, a spread of commitment to the concern, a network structure of control, authority and communication and a lateral rather than a vertical direction of communication (Burns & Stalker, 2001, p.120,121).” (Sollund, 2006, pg. 289)

Sollund, R. (2006). Mechanistic versus organic organizations' impact on immigrant women's work satisfaction and occupational mobility. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality & Tourism 6(4), 287-307. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=24925280&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Intranets-
“At BD Diagnostics in Sparks, Md., a unit of the BD global medical technology company, HR staff members use the intranet for information sharing among widely separated locations. Using the intranet's collaboration software, staff members can post and share PowerPoint presentations, white papers and other documents.” (Taylor, 2008, pg. 104)

Taylor, J. (2008). Improving intranet usefulness. HRMagazine 53(4), 103-106. Retieved November 1, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=31726015&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Virtual Organizations-
“Electronic communications are fundamental to the virtual organization that depends heavily on e-mail. The virtual corporation includes independent companies that share skills and resources to achieve common goals. They provide the advantage of worldwide access to resources to solve work-specific problems and to provide products or services.” (Byrd & Gulbro, 1998, pg. 14)

Byrd, K. & Gulbro, R. (1998). E-mail and the organization of tomorrow. Ivey Business Journal 63(1), 14. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=1199379&site=ehost-live&scope=site

WEEK 13 TERMS
Bureaucratic control
“Job classification and job-bidding systems were also elements of the emerging bureaucratic control system (Burawoy 1979, chap. 6), as were the development of formalized layoff procedures, codified rule books, and the introduction (or extension) of job analysis and evaluation.” (Baron, Jennings, & Dobbin, 1988, p. 499)

Baron, J. N., Jennings, P. D., & Dobbin, F. R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in U.S. industry. American Sociological Review 53(4), 497-514. Retrieved November 3, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=14789923&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Clan control (or cultural control)
“It is suggested that, while many authors of the ICT/QM paradigm promote concepts of ‘empowerment’ and freedom of individual decision-making, these may be seen to rest upon an increasing manipulation of the individual by centralized forms of managerial surveillance and cultural control.” (p. 673)

Wilson, F. (1999). Cultural control within the virtual organization. Sociological Review 47(4), 672-695. Retrieved November 3, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=2826410&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Objective (behavior) control
“Behavior control seeks to secure a specified type of behavior in the belief that the behavior delivers the right results. Behavior controls are procedures that lay down a sequence of operations that must be followed. Cost estimation methods exemplify this form of control.” (Liu & Zhu, 2007, p. 92)

Liu, L. & Zhu, K. (2007). Improving cost estimates of construction projects using phased cost factors. Journal of Construction Engineering & Management 133(1), 91-95. Retrieved November 3, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=23461384&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Feedback Control-
"Feedback control is the basic mechanism by which systems, whether mechanical, electrical, or biological, maintain their equilibrium. Feedback control may be defined as the use of difference signals, determined by comparing the actual values of system variables to their desired values as a means of controlling a system.” (Schneidewind, 2007, p.413)

Schnedewind, N. (2007). Feedback control system for software. International Journal of Reliability, Quality & Safety Engineering. 14(5), 411-429. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=27441435&site=bsi-live.

Concurrent Control-
“[An example of concurrent control would be] Nike+iPod Sports Kit uses wireless technology that lets Nike’s Air Zoom Moire sneakers send fitness data to an iPod Nano…As you run, the sensor records distance, time, pace, and calories burned in real time…you can upload workout data from the Nano to Apple’s iTunes and the nikeplus.com Web site to track progress over time and to compete (virtually) with other runners.” (Unknown author, 2006, p.10)

Unknown Author. (2006). Tunes to go. Communications of the ACM. 49(8), 10. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=21638964&site=bsi-live.

Feed Forward Control-
“The limits of traditional control systems are overcome in part in a strategic control system by employing a. feedforward approach that is future-directed and anticipatory. 'In its essence, engineering feedforward control aims at meeting the problem of delay in feedback systems by monitoring inputs and predicting their effects on outcome variable.” (Preble, 1992, p. 393)

Preble, J. F. (1992). Towards a comprehensive system of strategic control. Journal of Management Studies. 29(4), 391-409. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=4555138&site=bsi-live.

Kaizan-
“It is "organized" little steps taken to improve production, to improve employee attitude and morale and to implement new technologies — little steps to achieve the often used business objective of today. We have found one of the important keys to continual improvement is cross functional teams — "Kaizan teams," as we call them — challenged to improve our business through application of small group think-tanks thinking "small is big." (Lovrak, 1998, p. 22)

Lovrak, J. (1998). Think small for big gains. Adhesives Age 41(1), 22. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=191172&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Control & Vision (or Mission)-
“Strive to be a predictable leader. The least stressful companies to work for are those in which the rational system—the officially stated goals, values, policies, procedures, job roles and so forth—is a fairly accurate description of what actually transpires on the average workday. This means that the rational system and the emotional system are reasonably well aligned.” (Miller, 2008, p. 104)

Miller, J. (2008). Leading in the age of anxiety. Power Engineering 112(4), 104. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=31906745&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Leadership & Control-
“The ideology of "taking charge", "taking control" and "dictating how it's going to be" in my opinion will not make you a leader. These methods only offer one-way communication, basically the 'bully" approach. They certainly lack the intellect, understanding and finesse required to communicate at the employee, management and/or political level.” (Reidenbach, 2008, p. 4)

Reidenbach, J. (2008). Core qualifications for operational success. Supervision 69(7), 3-6. Retrieved November 6, 2008, from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=32921864&site=ehost-live&scope=site

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